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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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William G Meikle

Meikle Laboratory


William G Meikle

Carl Hayden Bee Research Center

2000 E Allen Rd  Tucson, AZ, 85719


Phone: (520) 647-9196  Fax: (520) 670-6493



1992     Ph.D.      University of California, Berkeley, Entomology

1982     B.A.         Pomona College, Claremont, CA, Biology



Our current research focuses on developing the use of sensors to model bee colony dynamics and to monitor bee health productivity and performance.

Continuous monitoring provides robust data that allows us to correlate hive events, such as changes in forager activity, with external factors such as weather events, blooms of important flower species, or pesticide application in a neighboring field. Continuously weighing hives (hourly or more often) using electronic sensors is a colony monitoring approach that offers a high information yield with comparatively little hive disturbance. Continuous weight data have been shown to be rich in information on colony growth and consumption, swarming, weather effects and hive abandonment.  Other kinds of data that can provide information on hive health and activity include temperature, humidity, O2 and CO2 concentration, forager traffic, vibration and acoustic signals. Analysis of these data over time may allow us to use continuous monitoring tools to predict hive activities and diagnose colony disorders.



2012-present         Research Entomologist, Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ.

2009-2012                Research Entomologist, Honey Bee Research Unit, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Weslaco, TX.

2001-2009                Research Entomologist, European Biological Control Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.

1995-2001                Principal and Associate Scientist, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Calavi, Benin.

1993-1995                Post-doctoral Fellow, IITA, Calavi, Benin.

1989-1992                Rockefeller Predoctoral Fellow, IITA, Calavi, Benin.

1986-1989                Research and Teaching Assistantships, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

1984-1986                Peace Corps Volunteer, The Gambia.

Last Modified: 8/30/2016
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