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William G Meikle




Meikle Laboratory

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Willliam G Meikle

Research Entomologist

Carl Hayden Bee Research Center

2000 E Allen Rd, Tucson, AZ, 85719

E-mail: william.meikle@ars.usda.gov

Phone: (520) 647-9196 Fax: (520) 670-6493

 

EDUCATION

1992     Ph.D.      University of California, Berkeley, Entomology

1982     B.A.         Pomona College, Claremont, CA, Biology

CURRENT RESEARCH

Our current research focuses on developing the use of sensors to model bee colony dynamics and to monitor bee health productivity and performance.

Continuous monitoring provides robust data that allows us to correlate hive events, such as changes in forager activity, with external factors such as weather events, blooms of important flower species, or pesticide application in a neighboring field. Continuously weighing hives (hourly or more often) using electronic sensors is a colony monitoring approach that offers a high information yield with comparatively little hive disturbance. Continuous weight data have been shown to be rich in information on colony growth and consumption, swarming, weather effects and hive abandonment.  Other kinds of data that can provide information on hive health and activity include temperature, humidity, O2 and CO2 concentration, forager traffic, vibration and acoustic signals. Analysis of these data over time may allow us to use continuous monitoring tools to predict hive activities and diagnose colony disorders.

 

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

2012-present   Research Entomologist, Carl Hayden Bee Research Center, USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ. 
2009-2012  Research Entomologist, Honey Bee Research Unit, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS, Weslaco, TX.
2001-2009 Research Entomologist, European Biological Control Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Montferrier-sur-Lez, France.
1995-2001 Principal and Associate Scientist, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Calavi, Benin.
1993-1995 Post-doctoral Fellow, IITA, Calavi, Benin.
1989-1992 Rockefeller Predoctoral Fellow, IITA, Calavi, Benin.

1986-1989

Research and Teaching Assistantships, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
1984-1986 Peace Corps Volunteer, The Gambia.

 

       

Publications           

              

Patent

Meikle, W.G., and C. Nansen. U.S. Patent Number 8,226,938. Biocontrol of Varroa Mites. November 2011.

 

Journal Articles

Alburaki, M., S.J. Steckel, D. Chen, E. McDermott, M. Weiss, J.A. Skinner, H. Kelly, G. Lorenz, D.R. Tarpy, W.G. Meikle, J. Adamczyk, S.D. Stewart. 2017. Landscape and pesticide effects on honey bees: forager survival and expression of acetylcholinesterase and brain oxidative genes. Apidologie 48(4):556-571 DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0497-3.

Alburaki, M., S.J. Steckel, M.T. Williams, J.A. Skinner, H. Kelly, G. Lorenz, D.R. Tarpy, W.G. Meikle, J. Adamczyk, S.D. Stewart. 2017. Agricultural landscape and pesticide effects on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) biological traits. Journal of Economic Entomology110(3): 835–847, DOI:10.1093/jee/tox111

Hopper, K., K. Lanier, J. H. Rhoades, K. A. Hoelmer, William G. Meikle, G. E. Heimpel, R. J. O'Neil, D. G. Voegtlin, and James B. Woolley. 2017. Host specificity of Aphelinus species collected from soybean aphid in Asia. Biological Control 115: 55-73 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.09.004.

Meikle, W.G. and M. Weiss. 2017. Monitoring colony-level effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on honey bees. Journal of Visualized Experiments. In press.

Meikle, W.G., M. Weiss, P.W. Maes, W. Fitz, L.A. Snyder, T. Sheehan, B.M. Mott and K.E. Anderson. 2017. Internal hive temperature as a means of monitoring honey bee colony health in a migratory beekeeping operation before and during winter. Apidologie 48:666–680 DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0512-8.

 

Meikle, W.G., J.J. Adamczyk, M. Weiss, A.Gregorc, D.R. Johnson, S.D. Stewart, J. Zawislak, M.J. Carroll and G.M. Lorenz. 2016. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on honey bee colony growth and activity at three sites in the U.S. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0168603. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168603

Meikle, W.G., M. Weiss and A.R. Stilwell. 2016. Monitoring colony phenology using within-day variability in continuous weight and temperature of honey bee hives. Apidologie 47:1-14; DOI: 10.1007/s13592-015-0370-1.

 

Meikle, W.G. and N. Holst. 2015. Application of continuous monitoring of honey bee colonies. Apidologie 46:10–22 DOI: 10.1007/s13592-014-0298-x.

Meikle, W.G., N. Holst, S.C. Cook and J.M. Patt. 2015. Variability in Small Hive Beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) reproduction in laboratory and field experiments. Journal of Economic Entomology 108 (3): 887-893; DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov101.

Patt, J.M., A. Chow, W.G. Meikle, C. Gracia, M. Jackson, D. Flores, M. Sétamou, C. Dunlap, P. Avery, and W. Hunter. 2015.  Efficacy of an autodisseminator for an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, to suppress Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in residential citrus. Biological Control 88: 37-45.

 

Mankin, R., D. Hagstrum, C. Nansen and W.G. Meikle. 2014. Almond moth oviposition patterns in continuous layers of peanuts. Journal of Stored Products Research 59: 48-54.

Nansen, C. and W.G. Meikle. 2014. Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations. Molecular Plant Pathology 15(3): 223–225.

Patt, J.M. D. Stockton, W.G. Meikle, M. Sétamou, A. Mafra-Neto, and J. J. Adamczyk. 2014. Innate and conditioned responses to chemosensory and visual cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of huanglongbing pathogens. Insects 5: 921-941; DOI:10.3390/insects5040921.

 

Chow, A., C. Dunlap, D. Flores, M. Jackson, W. Meikle, M. Sétamou, and J. M. Patt. 2013. Development of a pathogen dispenser to control Asian citrus psyllid in residential and organic citrus. Citrograph Jan./Feb. 30-35.

Meikle, W.G., M.-C. Bon, S. Cook, C. Gracia, and S. Jaronski. 2013. Two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria differentially affect survivorship of waxworm (Galleria mellonella) larvae exposed to an arthropod fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Biocontrol Science and Technology 23(2): 220-233.

Nansen, C., B. Stokes, J. James, P. Porter, E.J. Shields, T. Wheeler, and W.G. Meikle. 2013. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles. Journal of Economic Entomology 106 (2): 648-652. DOI: 10.1603/EC12380.

Patt, J.M, D. Woods, D. Spiros, W.G. Meikle, D. Stockton, S.L. Lapointe, and A. Mafra-Neto. 2013. Novel synthetic ligands enhance the behavioral responses of Asian Citrus Psyllid to naturally occurring host plant volatiles. American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Chapter 8: 111-124. DOI: 10.1021/bk-2013-1141.ch008.

 

Dietemann, V., J. Pflugfelder, D. Anderson, J.-D. Charrière, N. Chejanovsky, B. Dainat, J. de Miranda, K. Delaplane, F.-X. Dillier, S. Fuchs, P. Gallmann, L. Gauthier, A. Imdorf, N. Koeniger, J. Kralj, W. Meikle, J. Pettis, P. Rosenkranz, D. Sammataro, D. Smith, O. Yañez, and P. Neumann. 2012. Varroa destructor: Research avenues towards sustainable control. Journal of Apicultural Research 51(1): 125-132. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.1.51.1.15.

Meikle, W.G. and R. Diaz. 2012. Factors affecting pupation success of the Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida Murray. Journal of Insect Science 12: 118.

Meikle, W.G., G. Mercadier, F. Guermache and M.-C. Bon. 2012. Pseudomonas contamination of a fungus-based biopesticide: implications for honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) health and varroa mite (Acari: Varroidae) control. Biological Control 60: 312–320. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.12.004.

Meikle, W.G., J.M. Patt, and D. Sammataro. 2012. Intraspecific competition effects on Aethina tumida (Col.: Nitidulidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 105(1):26-33. DOI: 10.1603/EC11273.

Meikle, W.G., D. Sammataro, P. Neumann and J. Pflugfelder. 2012. Challenges for developing biopesticides against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae). Apidologie 43(5): 501-514. DOI: 10.1007/s13592-012-0118-0.

Patt, J. M., R.S. Pfannenstiel, W.G. Meikle and J.J. Adamczyk. 2012. Supplemental diets containing yeast, sucrose, and soy powder enhance the survivorship, growth, and development of prey-limited cursorial spiders. Biological Control 63 (3): 237-245. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2011.02.004.

 

Meikle, W.G. and J.M. Patt. 2011. The effects of temperature, diet and other factors on development, survivorship and oviposition of the Small Hive Beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Col.: Nitidulidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 104(3): 753-763. DOI: 10.1603/EC10364.

Nansen, C., and W. G. Meikle. 2011. The economic injury level and the action threshold in stored-product systems. Stewart Postharvest Reviews 7(3): art. no. 3. DOI: 10.2212/spr.2011.3.3.

Patt, J.M., W.G. Meikle, A. Mafra-Neto, M. Sétamou, R. Mangan, N. Malik, and J.J. Adamczyk. 2011. Multimodal cues drive host-plant assessment in Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri). Environmental Entomology 40(6): 1494-1502. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EN11149.

 

Meikle, W.G., G. Mercadier, F. Annas and N. Holst. 2009. Effects of multiple applications of a Beauveria-based biopesticide on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) densities in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 48(3):220-222. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.1.48.3.13

Nansen, C., P. Flinn, D. Hagstrum, M.D. Toews and W.G. Meikle. 2009. Interspecific associations among stored-grain beetles. Journal of Stored Products Research 45:254–260.

 

Meikle, W.G., G. Mercadier, N. Holst, and V. Girod. 2008. Impact of two treatments of a formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) conidia on Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) and on honeybee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony health. Experimental and Applied Acarology 46:105–117. DOI: 10.1007/s10493-008-9160-z.

Meikle, W.G., G. Mercadier, N. Holst, C. Nansen and V. Girod. 2008. Impact of a treatment of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) on honeybee (Apis mellifera) colony health and on Varroa destructor mites (Acari: Varroidae). Apidologie 39: 1-13. DOI: 10.1051/apido:2007057

Meikle, W.G., B.G. Rector, G. Mercadier and N. Holst. 2008. Within-day variation in continuous hive weight data as a measure of honey bee colony activity. Apidologie 39: 694-707. DOI: 10.1051/apido:2008055

Nansen, C., W.G. Meikle, J. Campbell, T.W. Phillips and B. Subramanyam. 2008. A binomial and species-independent approach to trap capture analysis of flying insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 101(6): 1719-1728.

 

Girod, V., G. Mercadier and W. Meikle. 2007. Du nouveau dans la lutte biologique contre Varroa destructor [What's new in biological control of Varroa destructor]. Bulletin Technique Apicole 33(4): 187-196.

Meikle, W.G., G. Mercadier and V. Girod. 2007. Les micro-champignons, nouvel espoir dans la lutte biologique contre Varroa destructor [Micro-fungi, new hope in biological control of Varroa destructor]. Abeilles & Cie 118(3): 14-19.

Meikle, W.G., G. Mercadier, N. Holst, C. Nansen and V. Girod. 2007. Duration and spread of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes), used to treat Varroa mites, Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), in honeybee  (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hives. Journal of Economic Entomology 100(1): 1-10.

 

Holst, N., P. Kryger; and W.G. Meikle. 2006. Portræt af en vokstavle [Portrait of a honeycomb]. Tidssskrift for Biavl [Journal of Apiculture, Denmark] 140(10): 314-316.

Meikle, W.G., N. Holst, G. Mercadier, F. Derouané, and R.R. James. 2006. Using balances linked to dataloggers to monitor honeybee colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 45(1): 39-41.

Meikle, W.G., G. Mercadier, V. Girod, F. Derouané and W.A. Jones. 2006. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from varroa mites in southern France. Journal of Apicultural Research 45(3): 219-220.

Nansen, C., W.G. Meikle, and T.W. Phillips. 2006. Ovipositional response of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to size, quality, and number of food patches. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99(2): 253-260.

Poinar, G.O. Jr, W.G. Meikle and G. Mercadier. 2006. Chroniodiplogaster formosiana sp. n. (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae) from Chinese populations of Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera:Termitidae). Journal of Nematology 38(2): 181-186.

 

Meikle, W.G., G. Mercadier, R.B. Rosengaus, A.A. Kirk, F. Derouané and P.C. Quimby. 2005. Evaluation of an entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) obtained from Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of applied Entomology 129(6): 315-322.

Vowotor, K., W.G. Meikle, J.N. Ayertey, and R.H. Markham. 2005. Distribution of and association between the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in maize stores. Journal of stored Products Research 41(5): 498-512.

 

Nansen, C., W.G. Meikle, B. Tigar, S. Harding and A. Tchabi. 2004. Non-agricultural hosts of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in West African forests. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97(3) 481-491.

Quimby, P.C., S. Gras, T. Widmer, W. Meikle and D. Sands. 2004. Formulation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for use against Cirisium arvense. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 19: 491-495.

 

Holst, N., and W.G. Meikle. 2003. Teretrius nigrescens against larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus in African maize stores: biological control at work? Journal of Applied Ecology 40(2): 307-319.

Hurlbert, S. and W.G. Meikle. 2003. Pseudoreplication, fungi, and locusts. Journal of Economic Entomology 96(3): 533-535.

Meikle, W.G., S. Jaronski, G. Mercadier and P.C. Quimby. 2003. A distributed delay routine-based simulation model of Beauveria bassiana conidial stability in response to environmental stressors. BioControl 48: 561-578.

 

Adda, C., C. Borgemeister, A. Biliwa, W.G. Meikle, R.H. Markham, and H.-M. Poehling. 2002. Integrated pest management in post-harvest maize: a case study from the Republic of Togo (West Africa). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 93(1-3): 305-321.

Meikle, W.G., R.H. Markham, C. Nansen, N. Holst, P. Degbey, K. Azoma and S. Korie. 2002. Pest management in traditional maize stores in West Africa: a farmer's perspective. Journal of Economic Entomology 95(5): 1079-1088.

Meikle, W.G., D. Rees and R.H. Markham. 2002. Biological control of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Integrated Pest Management Reviews 7: 123-138.

Nansen, C. and W.G. Meikle. 2002. The biology of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Integrated Pest Management Reviews 7: 91-104.

Nansen, C., W.G. Meikle and S. Korie. 2002. Spatial analysis of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) flight activity near maize stores and in different forest types in southern Benin, West Africa. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95(1): 66-74.

 

Boateng, B.A., J.N. Ayertey and W.G. Meikle. 2001. Population dynamics of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky in a traditional barn: the influence of maize variety and season. Journal of Ghana Science Association 3(3): 62-69.

Meikle, W.G., A. Cherry, N. Holst, B. Hounna and R.H. Markham. 2001. The effects of an entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hyphomycetes), on Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae), Sitophilus zeamais (Col.: Curculionidae) and grain losses in stored maize in the Benin Republic. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 77(3): 198-205.

Nansen, C., S. Korie, W.G. Meikle and N. Holst. 2001. Sensitivity of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) flight activity to environmental variables in Benin, West Africa. Environmental Entomology 30(6): 1135-1143.

Nansen, C., A. Tchabi and W.G. Meikle. 2001. Successional sequence of forest types in a disturbed dry forest reserve in southern Benin, West Africa. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17(4): 525-539.

 

Holst, N., W.G. Meikle and R.H. Markham. 2000. Grain injury models for Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rural maize stores in West Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(4): 1338-1346.

Meikle, W.G., N. Holst, P. Degbey and R. Oussou. 2000. An evaluation of sequential sampling plans for the larger grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and of visual grain assessment in West Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(6): 1822-1831.

 

Ayertey, J.N., W.G. Meikle, C. Borgemeister, M. Camara and R.H. Markham. 1999. Studies on predation of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col., Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Col., Curculionidae) at different densities on maize by Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Col., Histeridae). Journal of Applied Entomology 123: 265-271.

Meikle, W.G., N. Holst and R.H. Markham. 1999. A simulation model of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rural grain stores in Benin. Environmental Entomology 28(5): 836-844.

Nansen, C., S. Korie, and W.G. Meikle. 1999. CANOCO and SADIE - softwares packages for spatial analysis of pheromone trap catches of maize storage pest and its biological control agent. Journal of Tropical Forest Resources. 15(2): 146-158.

Oussou, R., W.G. Meikle, and R.H. Markham. 1999. Factors affecting the development and survivorship of larvae of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis. Insect Science and its Application 18(1): 53-58.

 

Meikle, W.G., C. Adda, K. Azoma, C. Borgemeister, P. Degbey, B. Djomamou and R.H. Markham. 1998. Varietal effects on the density of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Col.: Curculionidae) in grain stores in Benin Republic. Journal of Stored Products Research 34(1): 45-58.

Meikle, W.G., N. Holst, D. Scholz and R.H. Markham. 1998. A simulation model of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in rural grain stores in Benin. Environmental Entomology 27(1): 59-69.

Meikle, W. G., R.H. Markham, N. Holst, B. Djomamou, H. Schneider, and K.A. Vowotor. 1998. Distribution and sampling of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in maize stores in Benin. Journal of Economic Entomology 91(6): 1366-1374.

Vowotor, K.A., W.G. Meikle, J.N. Ayertey, C. Borgemeister and R.H. Markham. 1998. Intraspecific competition in larvae of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) within maize grains. Insect Science and its Application 18(3): 171-175.

 

Borgemeister, C., W.G. Meikle, C. Adda, P. Degbey and R.H. Markham. 1997. Seasonal and meteorological factors influencing the annual flight cycle of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and its predator Teretriosoma nigrescens (Coleoptera: Histeridae) in Benin. Bulletin of Entomological Research 87(3): 239-246.

Scholz, D., C. Borgemeister, W.G. Meikle, R.H. Markham and H. M. Poehling. 1997. Infestation of maize by Prostephanus truncatus initiated by male-produced pheromone. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 83(1): 53-61.

 

Adda, C., C. Borgemeister, W.G. Meikle, R.H. Markham, I. Olaleye, K.S. Abdou and M.O. Zakari. 1996. First record of the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), in the Republic of Niger. Bulletin of Entomological Research 86(1): 83-85.

Meikle, W.G., A.P. Gutierrez and H.R. Herren. 1996. Decision-making by smallholder farmers in an oil-palm-based economy in southern Benin, West Africa. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 73: 217-225.

 

Markham, R.H., N. Bosque-Pérez, C. Borgemeister and W.G. Meikle. 1994. Developing pest management strategies for the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, and the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus, in the humid and sub-humid tropics. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 42(3): 97-116.

 

Conference Proceedings/ Book chapters/ Newsletters

Meikle, W.G. 2012. Evaluating pollen potential. The Texas Beekeepers Association Journal. Issue 12-2. pp. 8.

Meikle, W.G. 2012. Electronics and the beehive. The Texas Beekeepers Association Journal. Issue 12-5. pp. 6.

Meikle, W.G., D. Sammataro and G. Mercadier. 2011. Chapter 6. Biological control of honey bee pests. P. 59-66 in Sammataro, D. and J.A. Yoder (eds) Honey Bee Colony Health: Challenges & Sustainable Solutions. Taylor & Francis Group LLC, London.

Jaronski, S.T., M.A. Jackson, C. Dunlap and W.G. Meikle. 2010.  Novel approaches in formulation of entomopathogenic fungi for control of insects in soil, foliar, and structural habitats: thinking outside the box and expecting the unexpected. Symposium on the Formulation of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes to Overcome Environmental Limitations, Proceedings of the 10th Annual Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology, 11-15 July 2010, Trabzon, Turkey.

Cherry, A., G. Mercadier, W.G. Meikle, M. Castelo-Branco and S. Schroer. 2004. Role of entomopathogens in DBM biological control, p. 51-70. In: Kirk, A.A. and D. Bordat (eds.) Improving Biocontrol of Plutella xylostella, Proceedings of an international symposium, 21-24 October 2002. CIRAD, Montpellier, France.

Nansen, C., and W. G. Meikle. 2003. Use of pheromone-baited trap catches as indicators of occurrence of potential hosts of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in a forest in southern Benin, p 71-77. In: Credland, P F., D. M. Armitage, C. H. Bell, P. M. Cogan, and E. Highley (eds.): Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection, York, England, 22-26 July 2002.

Quimby, P.C., Jr., G. Mercadier, W. Meikle, F. Vega, J. Fargues and N. Zidack. 2001. Enhancing biological control through superior formulations: A worthy goal but still a work in progress, p. 86-95. In: Vurro, M., J. Gressel, T. Butt, G.E. Harman, A. Pilgeram, R.J. St. Leger and D.L. Nuss (eds), Enhancing Biological Control Agents and Handling Risks. NATO Science Series. IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 

Gutierrez, A.P., L. Caltagirone and W. Meikle. 1999. Evaluation of results: Economics of biological control. P. 243-252 in Bellows, T.S. and T.W. Fisher (eds.) Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 856 pp.

Holst, N., R.H. Markham and W.G. Meikle. 1999. Integrated pest management of postharvest maize in developing countries. CD ROM. http://www.agrsci.dk/plb/bembi/africa/project.htm.

Meikle, W.G., P. Degbey, R. Oussou, N. Holst, C. Nansen and R.H. Markham. 1999. Pesticide use in grain stores: An evaluation based on survey data from Benin, p. 5-9. In: Ferris, S. and J. van S. Graver (eds) PhAction News, the Newsletter for the Global Post-harvest Forum (published jointly by IITA, GTZ, NRI and CIRAD). October 1999, No. 1 [http://www.iita.org].

Meikle, W.G., N. Holst, C. Nansen, J.N. Ayertey, B. Boateng and R.H. Markham. 1999. Developing decision-support tools for post-harvest pest management in grain stores in West Africa, p. 145-155. In: Borgemeister, C., O. Mueck and A. Bell (eds.) From biological control to a systems approach in post-harvest. Proceedings of the workshop on integrated control on insect pests in rural maize stores, with particular reference to the larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col.: Bostrichidae), and the future development of the post-harvest sector in sub-Saharan Africa. 13-15 October, 1997, Calavi, Benin. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany.

Meikle, W.G., N. Holst, and R.H. Markham. 1998. Developing computer-based modelling programmes to study the dynamics of maize pest populations in traditional African storage systems. In: Ferris, S. and C. Henckes (eds.) PostHarvest Systems. The Newsletter for Postharvest Systems Development in Africa (published jointly by IITA and GTZ). October 1998, No.3 [http://www.iita.org].

Markham, R.H., W.G. Meikle, C. Borgemeister C. Adda, and B. Djomamou. 1996. Progress towards integration of control strategies in West Africa, p. 81-100. In: Farrell, G., A.H. Greathead, M.G. Hill, and G.N. Kibata (eds.) Management of Farm Storage Pests in East and Central Africa. Proceedings of the East and Central African Storage Pest Management Workshop, 14-19 April 1996 Naivasha, Kenya. International Institute of Biological Control, Ascot, UK.

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