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Frank Dugan
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Contact Information

     59 Johnson Hall, WSU
     Pullman, WA 99164-6402


Frank Dugan



1992 - Ph.D. Plant Pathology
Washington State University, Pullman, WA
1988 - M.S. Forestry
University of Montana, Missoula, MT
1970 - B.S. Biological Oceanography
University of Washington, Seattle, WA


Professional Experience

1999 - Present Research Plant Pathologist
USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station
Pullman, WA
1994 - 1999 Collection Scientist for Mycology & Botany
American Type Culture Collection
Rockville, MD & Manassas, VA
1992 - 1994 Research Associate
USDA-ARS Tree Fruit Research Laboratory
Wenatchee, WA
1988 - 1992 Graduate Research Assistant
Department of Plant Pathology
Washington State University
Pullman, WA
1965 - 1987 US Forest Service
Lolo National Forest
Missoula, MT


Professional Affiliations

American Phytopathological Society

Mycological Society of America

Western Society of Weed Science

Department of Plant Pathology (Adjunct Faculty), Washington State University


Department of Forest Resources (Adjunct Faculty), University of Idaho

Research and Interests

Fungi endophytic or quiescent in seeds and fruits; etiology of diseases of stored seeds and fruits; taxonomy and identification of ascomycetes and anamorphic ascomycetes; ex-situ conservation and utilization of germplasm of higher plants and associated microbes.

Selected Publications


Dugan, F.M. 2015. Hidden Histories and Ancient Mysteries of Witches, Plants and Fungi. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 180 pp.

Dugan, F.M. 2011.. Conspectus of World Ethnomycology: Fungi in Ceremonies, Crafts, Diets, Medicines, and Myths. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 151 pp.

Dugan, F.M. 2008.. Fungi in the Ancient World: How Mushrooms, Mildews, Molds and Yeast Shaped the Early Civilizations of Europe, the Mediterranean and the Near East. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 140 pp.

Dugan, F.M.2006..The Identification of Fungi: An Illustrated Introduction with Keys, Glossary and Guide to Literature. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. 176 pp.


Book chapters:

Newcombe, G., and F.M. Dugan. 2010. Fungal pathogens of plants in the Homogocene, pp. 3-34 in: Molecular Identification of Fungi, Y. Gherbawy and K. Voigt eds., Springer, New York.

Dugan, F.M.2004. Glossary, pp. 637-672 in: Biodiversity of Fungi: Inventory and Monitoring Methods, Mueller, G. M., G. F. Bills, and M. S. Foster eds., Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam.


Diagnostic guides:

Harveson, R. M., S.G. Markell, R. Goswami, C.A. Urrea, M.E. Burrows, F. Dugan, W. Chen, and L.G. Skoglund. 2011. Ascochyta blight of chickpeas. Plant Health Progress Online. doi:10.1094/PHP-2011.-0103-01-DG.

Skoglund, L.G., R.M. Harveson, W. Chen, F. Dugan, H.F. Schwartz, S.G. Markell, L. Porter, M.L. Burrows and R. Goswami. Ascochyta blight of peas. 2011. Plant Health Progress Online. doi:10.1094/PHP-2011.-0330-01-RS.

Attanayake, R., W. Chen, D.A. Glawe, and F. Dugan. 2010. Powdery mildew of lentil, pp. 49-51 in: Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests, W. Chen, H.C. Sharma, and F.J. Muehlbauer eds., APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Dugan, F.M., K.P.R.N. Attanayake, D. Glawe, and W. Chen. 2010. Powdery mildew of chickpea, pp. 51-52 in: Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests, W. Chen, H.C. Sharma, and F.J. Muehlbauer eds., APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Dugan, F.M., and F. Crowe. 2008. Embellisia skin blotch and bulb canker of garlic, pp. 17-18 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests, 2nd ed., H.F. Schwartz and S.K. Mohan eds., APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

du Toit, L.J., and F.M. Dugan. 2008. Fusarium bulb rot of onion and garlic, pp. 15-17 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests, 2nd ed., H.F. Schwartz and S.K. Mohan eds., APS Press, St. Paul, MN.



Dugan, F.M., M.J. Cashman, R.C. Johnson, M. Wang, and X. Chen. 2014. Differential resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) in collections of Basin wild rye (Leymus cinereus). Plant Health Progress 15(2):97-102. doi:10.1094/PHP-RS-14-0002

Dugan, F.M., S.L. Lupien, C.M. Vahling-Armstrong, G.A. Chastagner, and B.K. Schroeder. 2014. Host ranges of North American isolates of Penicillium causing blue mold of bulb crops. Crop Protection 64: 129-136.

Alomran, M.M., S.L. Lupien, C.J. Coyne, and F.M. Dugan. 2013. Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seeds from a public germplasm collection. North American Fungi 8(4): 1-15.

Lawrence, D.J., P.B. Gannibal, F.M. Dugan, and B.M. Pryor. 2013. Characterization of Alternaria isolates from the infectoria species-group and a new taxon from Arrhenatherum, Pseudoalternaria arrhenatheria sp. nov. Mycological Progress 13:257-276.

Lupien, S.L., B.C. Hellier, F.M. Dugan, L.G. Skoglund, and K.F. Ward. 2013. White rot of garlic and onion (causal agent, Sclerotium cepivorum): A status report from the Pacific Northwest. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2013-0619-01-RV.

Dugan, F.M., S.L. Lupien, and W. Chen. 2012. Clonostachys rhizophaga and other fungi from chickpea debris in the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest, USA. North American Fungi 7(6): 1-11.

Dugan, F.M., B.C. Hellier and S.L. Lupien. 2011. Resistance to Penicillium allii in accessions from a National Plant Germplasm System Allium collection. Crop Protection 30: 483-488.

Attanayake, R.N., D.A. Glawe, K.E. McPhee, F.M. Dugan, and W. Chen. 2010. Erysiphe trifolii - A newly recognized powdery mildew pathogen of pea. Plant Pathology 59: 712-720.

Bensch, K., J.Z. Groenewald, J. Dijksterhuis, M. Starink-Willemse, B. Andersen, B.A. Summerell, H.D. Shin, F.M. Dugan, H.-J. Schroers, U. Braun and P.W. Crous. 2010. Species and ecological diversity within the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex (Davidiellaceae, Capnodiales). Studies in Mycology 67: 1-94.

Attanayake, R.N., D.A. Glawe, F.M. Dugan, and W. Chen. 2009. Erysiphe trifolii causing powdery mildew of lentil (Lens culinaris). Plant Disease 93: 797-803.

Chilvers, M.I., J.D. Rogers, F.M. Dugan, J.E. Stewart, W. Chen, and T.L. Peever. 2009. Didymella pisi sp. nov., the teleomorph of Ascochyta pisi. Mycological Research 113: 391-400.

Dugan, F.M., H. Akamatsu, S.L. Lupien, W. Chen, M.L. Chilvers and T.L. Peever. 2009. Ascochyta blight of chickpea reduced 38% by application of Aureobasidium pullulans (anamorphic Dothioraceae, Dothideales) to post-harvest debris. Biocontrol Science & Technology 19: 537-545.

Dugan, F.M., U. Braun, J.Z. Groenewald, and P.W. Crous. 2008. Morphological plasticity in Cladosporium sphaerospermum. Persoonia 21: 9-16.

Pappu, H.R., B.C. Hellier, and F.M. Dugan. 2008. Evaluation of the National Plant Germplasm System's garlic collection for seven viruses. Plant Health Progress doi: 10.1094/PHP-2008. -0919-01-RS.

Wise, K.A., C.A. Bradley, J.S. Pasche, N.C. Gudmestad, F.M. Dugan, and W. Chen. 2008. Baseline sensitivity of Ascochyta rabiei to azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and boscalid. Plant Disease 92: 295-300.

Dugan, F.M., B.C. Hellier and S.L. Lupien. 2007. Pathogenic fungi in garlic seed cloves from the United States and China, and efficacy of fungicides against pathogens in garlic germplasm in Washington State. Journal of Phytopathology 155: 437-45.

Tadych, M., M. Bergen, F.M. Dugan, J.F. White, Jr. 2007. Evaluation of the potential role of water in spread of conidia of the Neotyphodium endophyte of Poa ampla. Mycological Research 111: 466-472.

Dugan, F.M., S.L. Lupien, M. Hernandez-Bello, T.L. Peever and W. Chen. 2005. Fungi resident in chickpea debris and their suppression of growth and reproduction of Didymella rabiei under laboratory conditions. Journal of Phytopathology 153: 431-439.

Braun, U., P.W. Crous, F. Dugan, J.Z. Groenewald, and G.S. de Hoog. 2003. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Cladosporium-like hyphomycetes, including Davidiella gen. nov., the teleomorph of Cladosporium s. str. Mycological Progress 2(1): 3-18.

Dugan, F.M. and S.L. Lupien. 2002. Filamentous fungi quiescent in seeds and culm nodes of weedy and forage grass species endemic to the Palouse region of Washington and Idaho. Mycopathologia 156:31-40.

Dugan, F.M., S.L. Lupien and G.G. Grove. 2002. Incidence, aggressiveness, and in planta interactions of Botrytis cinerea and other filamentous fungi quiescent in grape berries and dormant buds in central Washington state. Journal of Phytopathology 150:375-381.

Dugan, F.M. and T. L. Peever. 2002. Morphological and cultural differentiation of described species of Alternaria from Poaceae. Mycotaxon 83: 229-264.

Dugan, F.M., J.W. Sitton, R.F. Sullivan and J.F. White, Jr. 2002. The Neotyphodium endophyte of wild barley, (Hordeum brevisubulatem subsp. violaceum) grows and sporulates on leaf surfaces of the host. Symbiosis 32:147-159.


Dugan, F.M. 2012. Yippie Yi Yo Mycota Ki Yay! A mycologist's fervently biased account of how the American western frontier was molded by spores and mycelium. FUNGI Magazine 5: 6-19.

Dugan, F.M., A. Wiest, and K. McCluskey. 2011. Public germplasm collections and revolutions in biotechnology. Journal of Biosciences 36(2): 205-209.

Dugan, F.M.2009. Dregs of our forgotten ancestors: fermentative microorganisms in the prehistory of Europe, the steppes and Indo-Iranian Asia, and their contemporary use in traditional and probiotic beverages. Fungi 2(4): 16-39.

Dugan, F.M., D.A. Glawe, R.N. Attanayake, and W. Chen. 2009. The importance of reporting new host-fungus records for ornamental and regional crops. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2009.-0512-01-RV.

Dugan, F.M.2008. Fungi, folkways and fairy tales: mushrooms & mildews in stories, remedies & rituals, from Oberon to the Internet. North American Fungi 3(7): 23-72, doi: 10.2509/naf2008.003.0074.

Babcock, C., X. Chen, P.W. Crous, F.M. Dugan, B. Goates, and P.N. Green. 2007. Plant germplasm centers and microbial culture collections: a user's guide to key genetic resources for plant pathology. Plant Disease 91: 476-484.

Dugan, F.M.2007. Diseases and disease management in seed garlic: problems and prospects. Americas Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 1: 47-51.

Goetz, J., and F.M. Dugan. 2006. Alternaria malorum: a mini-review with new records for hosts and pathogenicity. Pacific Northwest Fungi 1(3):1-8. DOI: 10.2509/pnwf.2006.001.003.

Dugan, F., K. Schubert and U. Braun. 2004. Check-list of Cladosporium names. Schlechtendalia 11: 1-103.

Natural Products:

Gao, J., F. Leon, M.M. Radwan, O.R. Dale, A. Husni, S.P Manly, S. Lupien, X. Wang, R.A. Hill, F.M. Dugan, H.G. Cutler, and S.J. Cutler. 2011. Benzyl derivatives with in vitro binding affinity for human opioid and cannabinoid receptors from the fungus Eurotium repens. Journal of Natural Products 74: 1636-1639.

Heider, E.M., J.K. Harper, D.M. Grant, A. Hoffman, F. Dugan, D.P. Tomer and K.L. O'Neill. 2006. Unusual antioxidant activity in a benzoic acid derivative:a proposed mechanism for citrinin. Tetrahedron 62: 1199-1208.

Mac?as, F.A., R.M. Varela, A.M. Simonet, H.G. Cutler, S.J. Cutler, F.M. Dugan and R.A. Hill. 2000. Novel bioactive breviane spiroditerpenoids from Penicillium brevicompatum Dierckx. Journal of Organic Chemistry 65:9039-9046.

Mac?as, F.A., R.M. Varela, A.M. Simonet, H.G. Cutler, S.J. Cutler, S.A. Ross, D.C. Dunbar, F.M. Dugan and R.A. Hill. 2000. (+)-Brevione A. The first member of a novel family of bioactive spiroditerpenoids isolated from Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx. Tetrahedron Letters 41 (15):2683-2686.

First Reports/New Records:

Chen, W., F.M. Dugan, and R. McGee. 2014. First report of dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) on chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in the United States. Plant Disease 98: 165.

Dugan, F.M. 2012. First report of Erysiphe knautiae (Erysiphales) on Lomelosia caucasica (Caucasian pincushion flower) in North America. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2012-0227-01-BR.

Dugan, F. M., and M. Nazaire. 2011. First report of rust of Sidalcea malviflora (dwarf checkerbloom) caused by Puccinia sherardiana in Washington State. North American Fungi 6(15): 1-5. doi: http://dx.doi: 10.2509/naf2011.006.015

Dugan, F.M.2011. Three new host-fungus records for Golovinomyces species in Montana and Washington. North American Fungi 6(3): 1-7.

Newcombe, G., R. Gaylord, J.P. Yenish, J. Mastrogiuseppe, and F.M. Dugan. 2009. New records for pathogenic fungi on weedy or non-indigenous plants. North American Fungi 4(8): 1-12. doi: 10.2509/naf2009.004.008.

Attanayake, K.P.R.N., D.A. Glawe, K.E. McPhee, F.M. Dugan, and W. Chen. 2008. First report of powdery mildew of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) caused by Leveillula taurica in Washington State. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2008.-0702-01-BR.

Johnson, D.A., G. Pimentel, and F.M. Dugan. 2008. Cladosporium herbarum causes a leaf spot on Caltha leptosepala (marshmarigold) in western North America. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2008.-1121-01-RS.

Dugan, F.M., and D.A. Glawe. 2007. Powdery mildews on weeds in the Pacific Northwest: A miscellany of new records. Pacific Northwest Fungi 2(1):1-7. DOI: 10.2509/pnwf.2007.002.001.

Dugan, F.M., and G. Newcombe. 2007. New records for powdery mildews and Taphrina species in Idaho and Washington. Pacific Northwest Fungi 2(8): 1-5, doi:10.2509/pnwf.2007.002.008.

Dugan, F.M., and D.A. Glawe. 2006. First report of powdery mildew on Dipsacus sylvestris caused by Sphaerotheca dipsacearum in North America. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2006.-0607-02-BR.

Glawe, D.A., and F.M. Dugan. 2006. First report of Erysiphe (Uncinuliella) flexuosa in western North America. Pacific Northwest Fungi 1(11): 1-11. DOI 10.2509/pnwf.2006.001.011

Glawe, D.A., F.M. Dugan, Y. Liu and J.D. Rogers. 2005. First record and characterization of a powdery mildew on a member of the Juncaginaceae: Leveillula taurica on Triglochin maritima. Mycological Progress 4: 291-298.

Hartney, S., D.A. Glawe, F. Dugan and J. Ammirati. First report of powdery mildew on Corylus avellana caused by Phyllactinia guttata in Washington State. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2005-1121-01-BR.

Lupien, S.L., B.C. Hellier and F.M. Dugan. 2004. First report of onion rust Puccinia allii on Allium pskemense and A. altaicum. Plant Disease 88: 83.

Paulitz, T.C., F. Dugan, W. Chen and N.J. Gr?nwald. 2004. First report of Pythium irregulare on lentils in the United States. Plant Disease 88: 309.

Dugan, F.M., B.C. Hellier and S.L. Lupien. 2003. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing rot of garlic bulbs in North America. Plant Pathology 52: 426.