Cultivation of the cool-season grass prairie and shrub-steppe on the Columbia Plateau, a mixed Mediterranean/frozen soil region, began in the 1880's. This semi-arid region is characterized by very fertile, highly erodible silt-loam soils, developed on steep slopes over Miocene basalts. Early farming practices led to excessive soil loss. Sixty years of soil and water conservation efforts have slowed soil loss from fields and promises to provide nearly 100 per cent soil and water conservation. Hydrological research at CPCRC traditionally used small plot research to answer questions concerning infiltration, overland flow, and soil erosion processes. Since 1995, hydrological and soil conservation projects have been initiated to evaluate cropping practices influence on infield and upland drainage processes, channel initiation and development, sediment transport, and stream-water quality. These projects provide a substantive metric showing the efficacy of soil and water conservation efforts to date and provide data to model a range of management options in the future, from new residue management systems to incorporation of biofuel feedstock, such as oil seeds, into these systems.