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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Other Plants Published Research
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Death Camas

Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Smart, R.A. and Duelke, B.  Death camas poisoning in sheep: A case report.  Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 29(1):45-48. 1987.  

Panter, K.E. and James, L.F.  Death camas - Early grazing can be hazardous.  Rangelands 11(4):147-149. 1989.


Baker, D.C.,Pfister, J.A., Molyneux, R.J. and Kechele, P.  Cynoglossum officinale toxicity in calves.  J. Comp. Path. 104:403-410. 1991.

Pfister, J.A., Molyneux, R.J. and Baker, D.C.  Pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of houndstongue (Cynoglossum officinale L.)  J. Range Manage. 45(3):254-256. 1992.

Baker, D.C., Smart, R.A., Ralphs, M.H. and Molyneux, R.J.  Hound's-tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) poisoning in a calf.  J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 194:929-930.  1989.

Japanese Yew

Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Smart, R.A., Mitchell L. and Hansen, S.  English Yew poisoning in 43 cattle.  J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 202(9): 1476-1477. 1993.


Panter, K. E.  Toxicity of Knapweed in horses.  Knapweed Bulletin, Cooperative Extension Service, Washington State University 4(3) 1990.  (Technical Report)

Panter, K. E. Neurotoxicity of the Knapweeds (Centaurea spp.) in horses.  In Noxious Range Weeds, L.F. James, J.O. Evans, M.H. Ralphs and R.D. Child.  Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 316-324.  1991.  (Book Chapter)


Villena, F. and Pfister, J.A. Sand shinnery oak as forage for Angora and Spanish goats.  J. Range Manage. 43(2):116-122. 1990

Pfister, J.A., Hansen, D. and Malechek, J.C.  Surgical establishment and maintenance of esophageal fistulae in small ruminants.  Small Rumin. Res. 3:47-56. 1990.

Poison Hemlock

Panter, K.E., Keeler, R.F. and Buck, W.B.  Congenital skeletal malformations induced by maternal ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) in newborn pigs.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 46(10):2064-2066. 1985.

Ellis, L.C., James, L.F., McMullen, R.W. and Panter, K.E.  Reduced progesterone and altered cotyledonary prostaglandin levels induced by locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in sheep.  Am . J. Vet. Res. 46(9):1903-1907. 1985.

Panter, K.E., Keeler, R.F. and Baker, C.D.  Toxicoses in livestock from the hemlocks (Conium and Cicuta spp.).  J. Anim. Sci. 66:2407-2413. 1988.

Panter, K.E., Bunch, T.D., Keeler, R.F.  Maternal and fetal toxicity of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in sheep.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 49(2): 281-283. 1988.

Panter, K.E., Bunch, T.D., Keeler, R.F., Sisson, D.V.  Radio ultrasound observations of the fetotoxic effects in sheep from ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock).  Clin. Tox. 26(3&4):175-187. 1988.

Panter, K.E.and Keeler, R. F.  The hemlocks: Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum) and Water hemlock (Cicuta spp.)   In: L.F. James, M.H. Ralphs, D.B. Nielsen (Eds), Ecology and Economic Impact of Poisonous Plants on Livestock Production, Westview Press, Boulder, CO. pp. 207-225. 1988. (Book Chapter)

Frank, B. S., Michelson, W. B., Panter, K. E. and Gardner, D. R.  Ingestion of Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum).  West. J. Med. 163:573-574, 1995.

Panter, K.E., James, L.F. and Gardner, D.R.  Lupines, Poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp: Toxicity and teratogenicity in livestock. J. Nat. Toxins 8(1):117-134. 1999.

Rayless Goldenrod

Panter, K. E., Gardner, D. R. and James, L.F.   Rayless Goldenrod Toxicity in Livestock.  Rangelands 14(5): 284-285. 1992.

Riddell Groundsel

Lee, S.T., Schoch, T.K., Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R., Than, K.A. and Molyneux, R.J.  Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Hepatotoxic Alkaloids Riddelliine and Riddelliine N-Oxide.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 49(8):4144-4151. 2001.

Senecio species

Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B., Panter, K. and James, L.  Teratogenic and Hepatotoxic Range Plants. In: West, N. (ed.) Rangelands in a Sustainable Biosphere, Proceedings of the Fifth International Rangeland Congress, Vol 1., Society for Range Management, Denver, Colorado. 171-172. 1996.

Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Schoch, T.K.  Livestock Poisoning by Teratogenic and Hepatotoxic Range Plants.  In: Garland, T. and Barr, A.C. (eds).  Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants, CAB International, Wallingford, U.K 303-306. 1998. (Book Chapter 60)

Schoch, T.K.,Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L.  GC/MS/MS detection of pyrrolic metabolites in animals poisoned with the pyrrolizidine alkaloid riddelliine.  J. Nat. Toxins 9(2):197-206. 2000.

Gardner, D.R.,Throne, M.S., Molyneux, R.J., Pfister, J.A., Seawright, A.A.  Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio madagascariensis from Australia and Hawaii and assessment of possible livestock poisoning.  Biochem. Syst. Ecology 34:736-744. 2006.

Sleepy Grass

Faeth, S.H.,Gardner, D.R., Hayes, C.J., Jani, A., Wittlinger, S.K., Jones, T.A.  Temporal and spatial variation in alkaloid levels in Achnatherum robustum, a native grass infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium,   J. Chem. Ecol. 32(2):307-324. 2006.

Jones, T.A., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Chatterton, N.J.  Cattle prefer endophyte-free robust needlegrass.  J. Range Manage. 53(4):427-431. 2000.

Snakeweed or Broom Snakeweed

Ralphs, M.H.  Poisonous Plants: The Snakeweeds.  Rangelands 7(2):63-65.  1985.

Ralphs, M.H. and Sanders, K.D.  Population cycles of broom snakeweed in the Colorado Plateau and Snake River Plains.  J. Range Manage. 55(4):406-411. 2002.

Ralphs, M.H.>and Weidmeier, R.D.  Conditioning cattle to graze broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae).  J. Anim. Sci. 82:3100-3106. 2004.

Tansy mustard

Pfister, J.A., Baker, D.C., Lacey, J.L. and Brownson, R.   Photosensitization of cattle in Montana:  Is Descurainia pinnata the culprit?  Vet. Hum. Toxicol.  31(3):25-227.  1989.

Water Hemlock

Panter, K.E., Baker, D.C. and Kechele, P.O.  Water hemlock (Cicutadouglasii) toxicoses in sheep: pathologic description and prevention of lesions and death.  J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 8:474-480. 1996.

Western False Hellebore

Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gaffield, W. and Stegelmeier, B.L.  Development of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Veratrum Plant Teratogens: Cyclopamine and Jervine.  J. Agric. Food. Chem. 51(3):582-586. 2003.

Wild Tree Tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)

Keeler, R.F., Balls, L.D. and Panter, K.E.  Teratogenic effects of Nicotiana glauca and concentration of anabasine, the suspect teratogen in plant parts.  Cornell Vet. 71(1):47-53. 1981.

Panter, K.E., Keeler, R.F., Bunch, T.D. and Callan, R.J.  Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.  Toxicon 28(12): 1377-1385.  1990.

Panter, K.E. and Keeler, R.F.  Induction of cleft palate in goats by Nicotiana glauca during a narrow gestational period and the relation to reduction in fetal movement.  J. Nat. Toxins 1(1): 25-32. 1992.

Panter, K.E., Weinzweig, J., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L. and James, L.F.  Comparison of cleft palate induction by Nicotiana glauca in goats and sheep.  Teratology 61:203-210. 2000.

Veratrum Plants

Karhadkar, S.S., Bova, G.S., Abdallah, N., Dhara, S.,Gardner, D.R, Maltra, A., Isaacs, J.T., Berman, D.M., Beachy, P.A.  Hedgehog signalling in prostate regeneration, neoplasia and metastasis.  Nature  431:707-712. 2004.

Last Modified: 8/13/2016
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