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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Lupine Published Research
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Gardner, D.R. and Panter, K.E.  Comparison of Blood Plasma Alkaloid Levels in Cattle, Sheep, and Goats Fed Lupinus caudatus.  J. Nat. Toxins  2(1):1-11. 1993.


Gardner, D.R. and Panter, K.E.  Ammodendrine and Related Piperidine Alkaloid Levels in the Blood Plasma of Cattle, Sheep and Goats Fed Lupinus formosus.  J. Nat. Toxins 3(2): 107-116. 1994.


Gardner, D.R. and Panter, K.E.  Ch. 32  Anagyrine and Ammodendrine Alkaloid Levels in the Blood of Cattle, Sheep and Goats Fed Teratogenic Lupine Species.  In: Colegate, S.M. and Dorling, P.R. (eds.)  Plant-Associated Toxins: Agricultural, Phytochemical and Ecological Aspects, CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. 173-177. 1994.  (Book Chapter) 


Gardner, D., Stegelmeier, B., Panter, K., and James, L.  Teratogenic and Hepatotoxic Range Plants. In: West, N. (ed.) Rangelands in a Sustainable Biosphere, Proceedings of the Fifth International Rangeland Congress, Vol 1., Society for Range Management, Denver, Colorado. 171-172 (1995).


Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Schoch, T.  Livestock Poisoning by Teratogenic and Hepatotoxic Range Plants.  In: Garland, T. and Barr, A.C. (eds).  Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants, CAB International, Wallingford, U.K 303-306 (1998). (Book Chapter 60)


Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E., Chang, C.W.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. and Garrossian. M.  Ammodendrine and N-Methylammodendrine Enantiomers:  Isolation, Optical Rotation, and Toxicity.  J. Nat. Prod.  68(5):681-685. 2005.


Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Molyneux, R.J., Chang, C-W.T., Kem, W.R., Wildeboer, K., Soti, F. and Pfister, J.A.  Relative toxicities and neuromuscular nicotinic receptor agonistic potencies of anabasine enantiomers and anabaseine.  Neurotoxicol. Teratol.  28:220-228. 2006.


Keeler, R.F. and Panter, K.E.  Piperidine alkaloid composition and relation to crooked calf disease-inducing potential of Lupinus formosus.  Teratology 40:423-432. 1989.


Panter, K.E. and James, L.F.  Natural plant toxicants in milk: A Review.  J. Anim. Sci.  68:892-904. 1990.


Panter, K. E., Keeler, R. F., Bunch, T. D. and Callan, R. J.  Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.  Toxicon 28(12):1377-1385. 1990. 


Panter K.E., Bunch, T.D., Keeler, R.F., Sisson, D.V. and Callan, R.J.  Multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of piperidine alkaloid-containing plants:  Reduction in fetal movement as the probable cause.  Clin. Tox. 28(1):69-83. 1990.


Panter, K.E., Keeler, R.F., James, L.F. and Bunch, T.D.  Impact of plant toxins on fetal and neonatal development: A review.  J. Range Manage. 45(1):52-57. 1992. 


Panter, K. E. and Keeler, R. F.  Quinolizidine and piperidine alkaloid teratogens from poisonous plants and their mechanism of action in animals.  In Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, Congenital Abnormalities.  E. Hunt and S. M. Dennis, Eds.  9(1):33-40. 1993.  (Book Chapter)


Panter, K. E., Gardner, D.R. and Molyneux, R.J.  Comparison of toxic and teratogenic effects of Lupinus Formosus, L. Arbustus and L. Caudatus in goats.  J. Nat. Toxins 3(2):83-93. 1994. 


Panter, K. E. and James, L. F.  Alkaloid toxicants and teratogens of plant Origin.  In Phytochemicals and Health (D.L. Gustine and H.E. Flores eds.)  American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, Maryland, pp 145-154. 1995.


Panter, K. E., Gardner, D. R., Gay, C. C., James, L. F., Mills, R., Gay, J. M. and Baldwin, T. J.  Observations of Lupinussulphureus-induced "crooked calf disease".  J. Range Manage. 50(6):587-592. 1997.


Panter, K. E., Gardner, D. R. and Molyneux, R. J.  Teratogenic and fetotoxic effects of two piperidine alkaloid-containing lupines (L. Formosus and L. Arbustus) in cows.  J. Nat. Toxins 7(2):131-140. 1998.


Panter, K. E., Gardner, D. R., Shea, R. E., Molyneux, R. J., and James, L. F.  Toxic and teratogenic piperidine alkaloids from Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species, pp. 345-350.  In: Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants. T.Garland and A.C. Barr (Eds.).  CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX 108DE, U.K. 1998. (Book Chapter)


Panter, K.E., James, L.F. and Gardner, D.R.  Lupines, Poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp: Toxicity and teratogenicity in livestock.  J. Nat. Toxins 8(1):117-134. 1999.


Weinzweig, J., Panter, K.E., Pantaloni, M., Spangenberger, A., Harper, J.S., Lui, F., Gardner, D.R., Wierenga, T.L. and Edstrom, L.E.  The Fetal Cleft Palate: I. Characterization of a Congenital Model.  Plas. Recon. Surgery 103(2):419-428. 1999.


Panter, K.E. and Stegelmeier, B.L.  Reproductive toxicoses of food animals.  Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 16(3):531-544. 2000.


Panter, K.E., Mayland, H.F., Gardner, D.R. and Shewmaker, G.  Beef cattle losses after grazing Lupinus argenteus (Silvery Lupine).  Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 43(5):279-282. 2001.


Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Stegelmeier, B.L. and Lee, S.T.  Reproductive losses to poisonous plants: Influence of management strategies. J. Range Manage.  55(3):301-308.  2002


Lopez-Ortiz, S., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., and Launchbaugh, K.L. The effect of body condition on disposition of alkaloids from silvery lupine (Lupinus argenteus) in sheep.  J. Anim. Sci. 82(9):2798-2805. 2004.


Gay, C.C., Panter, K.E., Mealey, K.L., Gay, J.M. Hjartarson, S.W., Tibary, A., Motteram, E.S., Wierenga, T.,  James, L.F.  Comparison of plasma disposition of alkaloids after lupine challenge in cattle that had given birth to calves with lupine-induced arthrogryposis or clinically normal calves.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 65(11):1580-1583.  2004.


Panter, K.E.  Quinolizidine alkaloids, pp. 377-379.  In: (Konnie H. Plumlee, ed.) Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. Mosby, St. Louis, MO.  2004.  (Book Chapter)


Ralphs, M.H. and Williams, M.C.  Total alkaloid, crude protein, and fiber concentrations in velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) following herbicide application.  Weed Sci. 34:948-952. 1986.


Ralphs, M.H., Williams, M.C. and Turner, D.L.  Herbicidal control of velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus).  Weed Technol. 1:212-216. 1987.


Ralphs, M.H., and Williams, M.C.  Alkaloid response to defoliation of velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus).  Weed Technol. 2:429-432. 1988.


Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Gay, C. and Motteram, E.  Cattle Consumption of Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) in the Channel Scablands of Eastern Washington.  Range Ecol. Manage. 59(2):204-207.  2006.

Last Modified: 8/13/2016
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