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Locoweed Published Research
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Schoch, T.K., Gardner, D.R., Manners, G.D., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H.  Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for the Rapid Analysis of Toxic Compounds in Larkspurs and Milkvetches.  In Garland, T. and Barr, A. C. (eds).  Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants, CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. 243-248 (1998). (Book Chapter 50).


Gardner, D.R., Molyneux, R.J., Ralphs, M.H.  Analysis of Swainsonine: Extraction Methods, Detection and Measurement in Populations of Locoweeds (Oxytropis spp.).  J. Agric. Food Chem. 49(10):4573-4580. 2001.


Colodel, E.M.,Gardner, D.R., Zlotowski, P., Driemeier, D.  Identification of swainsonine as a glycoside inhibitor responsible for sida carpinifolia poisoning.  Vet. Hum. Toxicol.  44(3):177-178. 2002.


Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R., James, L.F. and Colegate, S.M.  Polyhydroxy alkaloids: chromatographic analysis.  J. Chromatography 967:57-74. 2002.


Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Edgar, J.A.  Preparative isolation of swainsonine from locoweeds: extraction and purification procedures.  Phytochem. Anal. 14:259-266. 2003.


Medeiros, R.M.T., Barbosa, R.C., Riet-Correa, F., Lima, E.F., Tabosa, I.M., Barros, S.S., Gardner, D.R., Molyneux, R.J.  Tremorgenic syndrome in goats caused by Ipomoea asarifolia in Northeastern Brazil.  Toxicon 41:933-935. 2003.


Gardner, D.R., Romero, J., Ralphs, M.H., Creamer, R.  Correlation of an endophytic fungus (Alternaria spp.) with the presence of swainsonine in lambert locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii).  In: Acamovic, T., Stewart, C.S., Pennycott, T.W. (eds), Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.  pp. 32-37 (2004).


Barbosa, R.C., Riet-Correa, F., Medeiros, R.M.T., Lima, E.F., Barros, S.S., Gimeno, E.J., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R.  Intoxication by Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii in goats in the state of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil.  Toxicon 47:371-379. 2006.


Molyneux, R.J., James, L.F., Panter, K.E. and Ralphs, M.H.  Analysis and distribution of swainsonine and related polyhydroxyindolizidine alkaloids by thin layer chromatography. Phytochem. Anal. 2:125-129. 1991.


Panter, K.E., Bunch, T.D., James, L.F. and Sisson, D.V.  Ultrasonographic imaging to monitor fetal and placental developments in ewes fed locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus).  Am. J. Vet. Res. 48(4):686-690. 1987. 


Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Nielsen, D., Molyneux, R.J., Ralphs, M.H.,Olsen, J.D.  The relationship of Oxytropis sericea (green and dry) and Astragalus lentiginosus with high mountain disease in cattle.  Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 30(4):318-323. 1988.


Panter, K.E., James, L.F. and Hartley, W.J.  Transient testicular degeneration in rams fed locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus).  Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 31(1):42-46. 1989.


Panter, K. E.  Neurotoxicity of the Knapweeds (Centaurea spp.) in horses.  In Noxious Range Weeds, L. F. James, J. O. Evans, M. H. Ralphs and R. D. Child.  Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 316-324.  1991.  (Book Chapter)



Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Stegelmeier, B.L., Ralphs, M.H. and Pfister, J.A.  Locoweeds:  Effects on reproduction in livestock.  J. Nat. Toxins 8(1):53-62. 1999.


Wang, S., Panter, K.E., Holyoak, G.R., Molyneux, R.J., Liu, G., Evans, R.C. and Bunch, T.D.  Development and viability of bovine preplacentation embryos treated with swainsonine in vitro.  Animal Reproduction Science 56:19-29. 1999.


Panter, K. E., Ralphs, M. H., James, L. F., and Stegelmeier, B. L.  Effects of locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) on reproduction in cows with a history of locoweed consumption.  Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 41(5):282-286. 1999.


Panter, K.E. and Stegelmeier, B.L.  Reproductive toxicoses of food animals.  Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 16(3):531-544.  2000.


Pfister, J.A., Astorga, J.B., Panter, K.E. and Molyneux, R.J.  Maternal locoweed exposure in utero and as a neonate does not disrupt taste aversion learning in lambs.  Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 36:159-167.  1993.


Pfister, J.A., Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R. and James, L.F.  Grazing of spotted locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) by cattle and horses in Arizona.  J. Anim. Sci. 81:2285-2293. 2003.


Pfister, J.A. and Price, K.  Lack of maternal influence on lamb consumption of locoweed (Oxytropis sericea). J. Anim. Sci. 74:340-344. 1996.


Pfister, J.A., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cheney, C.D., James, L.F. and Molyneux, R.J.  Operant analysis of chronic locoweed intoxication in sheep.  J. Anim. Sci. 74:2622-2632. 1996. 


Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Ralphs, M.H., Molyneux, R.J. and Lee, S.T.  Alkaloids as anti-quality factors in plants on western U.S. rangelands.  J. Range Manage. 54(4):447-461. 2001.


Launchbaugh, K., Provenza, F.D. and Pfister, J.A.  Herbivore response to anti-quality factors in forages.  J. Range Manage. 54:431-440. 2001.


Pfister, J.A. and Lopez, S.  Toxicity and management of alkaloid-containing range plants. P. 34-41.  Bull. 73 Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Expt. Station, Moscow. 2001.


Pfister, J.A., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cheney, C.D., Ralphs, M.H. and Gardner, D.R.  Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses.  J. Anim. Sci. 80:79-83. 2002.


Pfister, J.A., Astorga, J.B., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L. and Molyneux, R.J.  Maternal ingestion of locoweed.  I. Effects on ewe-lamb bonding and behaviour.  Small Ruminant Res. 65:51-63.  2006. 


Astorga, J.B., Pfister, J.A. and Stegelmeier, B.L.  Maternal ingestion of locoweed. II. The ability of intoxicated ewes to discriminate their own lamb.  Small Ruminant Res. 65:64-69.  2006.


Pfister, J.A., Davidson, T., Panter, K.E., Cheney, C.D. and Molyneux, R.D.  Maternal ingestion of locoweed.  III. Effects on lamb behaviour at birth.  Small Ruminant Res. 65:70-78.  2006.


Rogosic, J., Pfister, J.A., Provenza, F.D. and Grbesa, D.  Sheep and goat preference for and nutritional value of Mediterranean maquis shrubs.  Small Ruminant Res. 64:169-179. 2006.


Rogosic, J., Pfister, J.A., Provenza, F.D. and Grbesa, D.  The effect of activated charcoal and number of species offered on intake of Mediterranean shrubs by sheep and goats.  Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 101:305-317. 2006.


Ralphs, M.H., James, L.F., Nielsen, D.B. and Panter, K.E.  Management practices reduce cattle loss to locoweed on high mountain range.  Rangelands 6(4):175-177. 1984.


Ralphs, M.H., James, L.F. and Pfister, J.A.  Utilization of white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea Nutt.) by range cattle.  J. Range Manage. 39(4):344-347.  1986.


Ralphs, M.H.  Cattle grazing white locoweed: influence of grazing pressure and palatability associated with phenological growth stage.  J. Range Manage. 40(4):330-332. 1987.


Ralphs, M.H., Mickelsen, L.V. and Turner, D.L.  Cattle grazing white locoweed: diet selection patterns of native and introduced cattle.  J. Range Manage.  40(4):333-335. 1987.


Ralphs, M.H. and Cronin, E.H.  Locoweed seed in soil: density, longevity, germination and viability.  Weed Sci. 35:792-795. 1987.


Williams, M.C. and Ralphs, M.H.  Effects of herbicides on miserotoxin concentration in Wasatch milkvetch (Astragalus miser var. oblongifolius).  Weed Sci. 35:746-748. 1987.


Ralphs, M.H., Mickelsen, L.V., Turner, D.L. and Nielsen, D.B.  Control of white locoweed (Oxytropis sericea).  Weed Sci. 36:353-358. 1988.


Ralphs, M.H. and Ueckert, D.N.  Herbicide control of locoweeds: a review.  Weed Technol. 2:460-465. 1988.


Ralphs, M.H., James, L.F., Nielsen, D.B., Baker, D.C. and Molyneux, R.J.  Cattle grazing Wahweap milkvetch in Southeastern Utah.  J. Animal Sci. 66:3124-3130. 1988.


Ralphs, M.H. and Bagley, V.L.  Population cycles of Wahweap milkvetch on the HenryMountains and seed reserve in the soil.  Great Basin Naturalist 48(4):541-547. 1988.


Williams, M.C. and Ralphs, M.H. Control of Wasatch Milkvetch (Astragalus miser var. oblongifolius) and associated species on mountain rangeland.  Weed Technol. 3:110-113. 1989.


Ralphs, M.H., Benson, B. and Loerch, J.C.  Soil-site relationships of white locoweed on the RaftRiverMountains.  Great Basin Natural. 49(3):419-424. 1989.


Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E. and James, L.F.  Feed preferences and habituation of sheep poisoned by locoweed.  J. Anim. Sci. 68:1354-1362. 1990.


Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E. and James, L.F.  Grazing behavior and forage preference of sheep with chronic locoweed toxicosis suggests no addiction. J. Range Manage. 44(3):208-209. 1991.


Ralphs, M.H., Graham, D.L., Molyneux, R.J. and James, L.F.  Seasonal grazing of locoweeds by cattle in northeastern New Mexico.  J. Range Manage. 46:416-420. 1993.


Ralphs, M.H., Graham, D.L. and James, L.F.  Social facilitation influences cattle to graze locoweed.  J. Range Manage. 47(2):123-126. 1994.


Ralphs, M.H., Graham, D.L. and James, L.F.  Cattle grazing white locoweed in New Mexico: Influence of grazing pressure and phenological growth stage.  J. Range Manage. 47(4):270-274. 1994.


Ralphs, M.H., Graham, D., James, L.F. and Panter, K.E.  Locoweed effects on a calf crop. Rangelands 16(1):35-37. 1994.


Galyean, M.L., Ralphs, M.H., Reif, M.N., Graham, J.D. and Braselton Jr., W.E.  Effects of previous grazing treatment and consumption of locoweed on liver mineral concentrations in beef steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  74:827-833.  1996.


Ralphs, M.H., Graham, D., Galyean, M.L. and James, L.F.  Research observation: Influence of over-wintering feed regimen on consumption of locoweed by steers.  J. Range Manage. 50(3):250-252. 1997.


Ralphs, M.H. and James, L.F.  Locoweed grazing.  J. Nat. Toxins 8(1):47-51.  1999.


Ralphs, M.H., Graham, D., Duff, G.C., Stegelmeier, B.L. and James, L.F.  Impact of locoweed poisoning on grazing steer weight gains.  J. Range Manage. 53(1):86-90.  2000.


Ralphs, M.H., Greathouse, G., Knight, A.P. and James, L.F.  Research observation: Cattle preference for Lambert locoweed over white locoweed.  J. Range Manage. 54(3):265-268. 2001.


Mikus, J.H., Duff, G.C., Krehbiel, C.R., Allford, D.M., Walker, D.A., Graham, J.D. and Ralphs, M.H.  Effects of estradiol implant on locoweed consumption, toxicity and recover in growing beef steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci. 17:109-114.  2001.


Ralphs, M.H., Welsh, S.L. and Gardner, D.R.  Distribution of the locoweed toxin swainsonine in populations of Oxytropis lambertii.  J. Chem. Ecol. 28:701-707. 2002


Ralphs, M.H., Greathouse, G., Knight, A.P., Doherty, D., Graham, J.D., Stegelmeier, B.L. and James, L.F.  Prior feeding practices do not influence locoweed consumption.  J. Range Manage. 55(4):390-393. 2002.


Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Graham, J.D., Greathouse, G. and Knight, A.P.  Clipping and precipitation influences on locoweed vigor, mortality, and toxicity.  J. Range Manage. 55(4):394-399. 2002.


Duff, G.C., Ralphs, M.H., Walker, D.A., Graham, J.D., Rivera, J.D. and James, L.F.  Influence of beef breeds (Brangus, Charolais, or Hereford) on locoweed consumption.  Prof. Anim. Sci. 18:33-37. 2002.


Ralphs, M.H., Graham, J.D. and James, L.F.  A close look at Locoweed poisoning on shortgrass prairies.  Rangelands 24(2):30-34. 2002.


Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Welsh, S.L., Graham, J.D., Purvines, J., Jensen, D.T. and James, L.F. Locoweed population cycles.  Rangelands 25(5):14-18. 2003.


Anderson, D.M., Rayson, G.D., Obeidat, S.M., Ralphs, M.H., Estell, R., Fredrickson, E.L., Parker, E. and Gray, P.  Use of flourometry to differentiate among clipped species in the genera Astragalus, Oxytropis, and Pleuraphis.  Rangeland Ecol. Manage. 59(5):557-563. 2006.


Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H. and Pfister, J.A.  Tissue swainsonine clearance in sheep chronically poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea).  J. Anim. Sci. 76:1140-1144.  1998.


Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Molyneux, R.J. and Pfister, J.A.  The pathogenesis and toxicokinetics of locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) poisoning in livestock.  J. Nat. Toxins 8(1):35-45.  1999.


Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H. and Molyneux, R.J.  Dose response of sheep poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 11:448-456. 1999.


Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Spraker, T.R.  Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea)-induced Lesions in Mule Deer (Odocoileius hemionus).  Vet. Pathol. 42:566-578. 2005.