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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Larkspur Published Research
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Gardner, D.R., Manners, G.D., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A.  Quantitative Analysis of Norditerpenoid Alkaloids in Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.  Phytochem. Anal. 8:55-62. 1997.


Schoch, T.K., Gardner, D.R., Manners, G.D., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H.  Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Analysis of Toxic Compounds in Larkspurs and Milkvetches.  In: Garland, T. and Barr, A. C. (eds).  Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants, CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. 243-248. 1998. (Book Chapter 50).


Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Knight, A.P.  Analysis of toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids in Delphinium species by electrospray, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and sequential tandem mass spectrometry.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 47(12):5049-5058. 1999. 


Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A.  Late season toxic alkaloid concentrations in tall larkspur (Delphinium spp.).  J. Range Manage. 53(3):329-334. 2000.


Gardner, D.R., Manners, G.D., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A. Three new toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids from the low larkspur Delphinium nuttallianum.  J. Nat. Prod. 63(8):1127-1130. 2000.


Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Turner, D.L., Welsh, S.L.  Taxonomic implications of diterpene alkaloids in three toxic tall larkspur species (Delphinium spp.).  Biochem. System. Ecol. 30:77-90. 2002.


Li, X., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H. and Wang, R.R.-C.  Development of STS and CAPS markers for identification of three tall larkspurs (Delphinium spp.).  Genome 45(2):229-235. 2002.


Lee, S.T., Schoch, T.K., Gardner, D.R. and Stegelmeier, B.L.  Development of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Toxic Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) Alkaloids.  J. Agric. Food Chem.  48(10):4520-4528. 2000.


Lee, S.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Schoch, T.K. and James, L.F.  Evaluation of vaccination against methyllycaconitine toxicity in mice.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:232-238. 2003.


Manners, G.D., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Olsen, J.D. and James, L.F.  Toxicity and chemical phenology of norditerpenoid alkaloids in the tall larkspurs (Delphinium species).  J. Agric. Food Chem.  41(1):96-100. 1993.


Manners, G.D., Panter, K.E. and Pelletier, S.W.  Structure-activity relationships of norditerpenoid alkaloids occurring in toxic larkspur (Delphinium) species.  J. Nat. Prod. 58(6):863-869. 1995


Manners, G.D., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H. and James, L.F.  The characterization and structure-activity evaluation of toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids from two Delphinium species.  J. Nat. Prod. 61(9):1086-1089. 1998. 


Panter, K.E., Manners, G.D. Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. and James, L.F.  Larkspur poisoning: toxicology and alkaloid structure-activity relationships.  Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 30:113-128. 2002.


Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H. and Manners, G.D.  Cattle grazing tall larkspur on Utah mountain rangeland.  J. Range Manage.  41(2):118-122. 1988.


Pfister, J.A., Manners, G.D., Ralphs, M.H., Hong, Z.X. and Lane, M.A.  Effects of phenology, site and rumen fill on tall larkspur consumption by cattle.  J. Range Manage.  41:509-514. 1988.


Burritt, E.A., Pfister, J.A. and Malechek, J.C.  Effect of drying method on the nutritive composition of esophageal fistula forage samples: influence of maturity.  J. Range Manage.  41:346-349. 1988.


Pfister, J.A., Adams, D.C., Arambel, M.J., Olsen, J.D. and James, L.F.  Sublethal levels of toxic larkspur: effects on intake and rumen dynamics in cattle. Nutrition Reports International 40:(3)629-636. 1989.


Pfister, J.A., Provenza, F.D. and Manners, G.D.  Ingestion of tall larkspur by cattle: separating effects of flavor from postingestive consequences.  J. Chem. Ecol. 16:1697-1705.  1990.


Pfister, J.A., Muller-Schwarze, D. and Balph, D.F.  Effects of predator fecal odors on feed selection by sheep and cattle.  J. Chem. Ecol. 16(2):573-583. 1990.


Pfister, J.A. and Manners, G.D.  Mineral salt supplementation of cattle grazing tall larkspur-infested rangeland during drought.  J. Range Manage. 44(2):105-111. 1991.


Manners, G.D., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E. and Olsen, J.D.  Larkspur chemistry: toxic alkaloids in tall larkspurs. J. Range Manage. 45(1):63-67. 1992.


Provenza, F.D., Pfister, J.A. and Cheney, C.D.  Mechanisms of learning in diet selection with reference to phytotoxicosis in herbivores.  J. Range Manage.  45(1):36-45. 1992.


Pfister, J.A., Cheney, C.D. and Provenza, F.D.  Behavioral toxicology of livestock ingesting plant toxins.  J. Range Manage. 45(1):30-36. 1992.


Pfister, J.A. and Provenza, F.D.  Introduction to the Symposium: Ingestion of poisonous plants by livestock.  J. Range Manage. 45(1):2. 1992.


Manners, G.D. and Pfister, J.A.  Normal phase liquid chromatographic analysis of toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids.  Phytochem. Anal. 4:14-18. 1993.


Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Manners, G.D., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R. and Stegelmeier, B.L.  Tall larkspur poisoning in cattle: Current research and recommendations.  Rangelands 15(4):157-160. 1993.


Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Manners, G.D. and Cheney, C.D.  Reversal of tall larkspur Delphinium barbeyi) poisoning in cattle with physostigmine.  Vet. Hum. Tox. 36(6):511-514.  1994.


Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. and Manners, G.D.  Effective dose in cattle of toxic alkaloids from tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi).  Vet. Hum. Tox. 36(1):10-11. 1994.


Pfister, J.A., Manners, G.D., Gardner, D.R. and Ralphs, M.H.  Toxic alkaloid levels in tall larkspur (Dephinium barbeyi) in western Colorado.  J. Range Manage. 47(5):355-358. 1994.


Pfister, J.A. and Manners, G.D.  Effects of carbachol administration in cattle grazing tall larkspur-infested range.  J. Range Manage. 48(4):343-349. 1995.


Pfister, J.A., Manners, G.D., Gardner, D.R., Price, K.W. and Ralphs, M.H.  Influence of alkaloid concentration on acceptability of tall larkspur (Delphinium spp.) to cattle and sheep.  J. Chem. Ecol. 22(6):1147-1168. 1996.


Manners, G.D., and Pfister, J.A.  Sampling a poisonous plant population: quantifying toxic alkaloids in tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) leaves.  Weed Sci. 44:782-788. 1996.      


Pfister, J.A., Provenza, F.D., Manners, G.D., Gardner, D.R. and Ralphs, M.H.  Tall larkspur ingestion: can cattle regulate intake below toxic levels?  J. Chem. Ecol. 23(3):759-777. 1997.


Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Manners, G.D., Gardner, D.R., Price, K.W. and James, L.F.  Early season grazing by cattle of tall larkspur- (Delphinium spp.) infested rangeland. J. Range Manage. 50(4):391-398. 1997.


Knight, A.P. and Pfister, J.A.  Larkspur poisoning in livestock: myths and misconceptions.  Rangelands 19(3):10-13. 1997.


Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. and Price, K.W.  Grazing risk on tall larkspur-infested ranges.  Rangelands 19(5):12-15. 1997.


Pfister, J.A. and Cheney, C.D.  Operant behavioral analysis of tall larkspur intoxication in cattle.  Behaviorol. 4(1):43-56. 1998.


Pfister, J.A., Cheney, C.D., Gardner, D.R. and Manners, C.D.  Mineral-salt supplement does not attenuate tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) toxicosis in cattle.  J. Range Manage. 51(5):566-569. 1998.


Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Manners, G.D., Ralphs, M.H., Stegelmeier, B.L. and Schoch, T.K.  Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.  J. Nat. Toxins 8(1):81-94.  1999.


Dobelis, P., Madl, J.E., Pfister, J.A., Manners, G.D. and Walrond, J.P.  Effects of Delphinium alkaloids on neuromuscular transmission. J. Pharm. Exp. Therap. 291:538-546.  1999. 


Pfister, J.A. and Gardner, D.R.  Consumption of low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum) by cattle.  J. Range Manage.  52(4):378-383. 1999.


Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Ralphs, M.H., Molyneux, R.J. and Lee, S.T.  Alkaloids as anti-quality factors in plants on western U.S. rangelands.  J. Range Manage. 54(4):447-461. 2001.


Launchbaugh, K., Provenza, F.D. and Pfister, J.A.  Herbivore response to anti-quality factors in forages.  J. Range Manage. 54:431-440. 2001.


Pfister, J.A. and Lopez, S.  Toxicity and management of alkaloid-containing range plants. P. 34-41.  Bull. 73 Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Expt. Station, Moscow. 2001.


Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Manners, G.D., Panter, K.E. and Lee, S.T.  Management of three toxic Delphinium species based on alkaloid concentrations.  Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 30:129-138. 2002.


Pfister, J.A., Provenza, F.D., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L. and Launchbaugh, K.L.  Risk management to reduce livestock losses from toxic plants.  J. Range Manage. 55(3):291-300.  2002.


Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Stegelmeier, B.L. and Lee, S.T.  Reproductive losses to poisonous plants: Influence of management strategies.  J. Range Manage. 55(3):301-308. 2002.


Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Knight, A.P., Waggoner, Jr., J.W. and Hall, J.O.  Plains larkspur (Delphinium geyeri) grazing by cattle in Wyoming.  J. Range Manage.  55(4):350-359. 2002.


Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Hackett, K. and Secrist, G.  Catastrophic cattle loss to low larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum) in Idaho.  Vet. and Hum. Tox. 45(3):137-139.  2003.


Atwood, S.B., McCoy, N., Snyder, D., Banner, R.E., Pfister, J.A. and Provenza, F.D.  Land Manager's GEM: A Flexible Framework for Comparative Analyses.  Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report #193.  2005.


Atwood, S.B., McCoy, N., Pfister, J.A., Snyder, D., Provenza, F. D. and Banner, R.E.  Mitigating financial and non-financial livestock losses to larkspur. AES research report  #?  2007.


Olsen, J.D. and Ralphs, M.H.  Feed aversion induced by intraruminal infusion with larkspur extract in cattle.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 47(8):1829-1833. 1986.


Ralphs, M.H., Olsen, J.D., Pfister, J.A. and Manners, G.D.  Plant-animal interactions in larkspur poisoning in cattle.  J. Animal Sci. 66:2334-2342. 1988.


Ralphs, M.H. and Turner, D.L.  Difficulty in controlling duncecap larkspur (delphinium occidentale.)  Weed Tech.  3:335-339. 1989.


Olsen, J.D., Ralphs, M.H. and Lane, M.A.  Aversion to eating poisonous larkspur plants induced in cattle by intraruminal infusion with lithium chloride.  J. Anim. Sci. 67:1980-1985. 1989.


Lane, M.A., Ralphs, M.H., Olsen, J.D., Provenza, F.D. and Pfister, J.A.  Conditioned taste aversion: potential for reducing cattle loss to larkspur. J. Range Manage. 43(2):127-131. 1990.


Ralphs M.H. and Olsen, J.D.  Adverse influence of social facilitation and learning context in training cattle to avoid eating larkspur.  J. Anim. Sci. 68:1944-1952. 1990.


Mickelsen, L.V., Ralphs, M.H., Turner, D.L., Evans, J.O. and Dewey, S.A. Herbicidal control of duncecap larkspur (Delphinium occidentale).  Weed Sci. 38:153-157. 1990.


Ralphs, M.H., Turner, D.L., Mickelsen, L.V., Evans, J.O. and Dewey, S.A. Herbicides for control of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi).  Weed Sci. 38:573-577. 1990.


Ralphs, M.H., Mickelsen, L.V., Evans, J.O. and Dewey, S.A. Selective application of glyphosate for control of larkspurs (Delphinium spp.)  Weed Technol. 5:229-231. 1991.


Ralphs, M.H., Bowns, J.E. and Manners, G.D.  Utilization of larkspur by sheep.  J. Range Manage. 44(6):619-622. 1991.


Ralphs, M.H. Conditioned food aversion: training livestock to avoid eating poisonous plants.  J. Range Manage. 45(1):46-51. 1992.


Ralphs, M.H., Evans, J.O. and Dewey, S.A. Timing of herbicide applications for control of larkspurs (Delphinium spp.)  Weed Sci. 40:264-269. 1992.


Ralphs, M.H. and Olsen, J.D.  Prior grazing by sheep reduces waxy larkspur consumption by cattle: An observation.  J. Range Manage. 45(2):136-139. 1992.     


Turner, D.L., Ralphs, M.H. and Evans, J.O.  Logistic analysis for monitoring and assessing herbicide efficacy.  Weed Technol. 6:424-430. 1992.


Ralphs, M.H. and Pfister, J.A.  Cattle diets in tall forb communities on mountain rangelands.  J Range Manage. 45(6):534-537. 1992.


Ralphs, M.H. and Olsen, J.D.  Comparison of larkspur alkaloid extract and lithium chloride in maintaining cattle aversion to larkspur in the field.  J. Anim. Sci. 70:1116-1120. 1992.


Ralphs, M.H. and Cheney, C.D.  Influence of cattle age, lithium chloride dose level, and food type in the retention of food aversions. J. Anim. Sci. 71:373-379. 1993.


Ralphs, M.H., Jensen, D.T., Pfister, J.A., Nielsen, D.B. and James, L.F.  Storms influence cattle to graze larkspur: An observation.  J. Range Manage. 47(4):275-278. 1994. 


Nielsen, D.B., Ralphs, M.H., Evans, J.O. and Call, C.A. Economic feasibility of controlling tall larkspur on rangeland.  J. Range Manage. 47(5):369-372. 1994.


Ralphs. M.H., Evans, J.O., Call, C.A. and Nielsen, D.B.  Herbicide control of tall larkspurs on mountain rangeland.  Utah State Univ. Extension Leaflet EL285. 1994. 


Bunderson, F.B., Ralphs, M.H., Evans, J.O., Call, C.A. and Nielsen, D.B.  Carpeted roller application of herbicides for Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) control.  Weed Technol. 9:392-396. 1995.


Ralphs, M.H., Provenza, F.D., Wiedmeier, R.D. and Bunderson, F.B.  Effects of energy source and food flavor on conditioned preferences in sheep.  J. Anim. Sci. 73:1651-1657.  1995.


Ralphs, M.H. Long term change in vegetation following herbicide control of larkspur. J. Range Manage. 48(5):459-464. 1995.           


Manners, G.D., Wong, R.Y., Benson, M., Ralphs, M.H. and Pfister, J.A.  The characterization and absolute stereochemistry of barbaline, a diterpenoid alkaloid from Delphinium barbeyi.  Phytochem. 42(3):875-879.  1996.


Ralphs, M.H., Manners, G.D., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. and James, L.F.  Toxic alkaloid concentration in tall larkspur species in the western U.S.  J. Range Manage. 50(5):497-502. 1997. 


Ralphs, M.H. Persistence of aversions to larkspur in naive and native cattle.  J. Range Manage. 50(4):367-370. 1997. 


Ralphs, M.H., Graham, D., Galyean, M.L. and James, L.F.  Creating aversions to locoweed in naive and familiar cattle.  J. Range Manage 50(4):361-366. 1997.


Ralphs, M.H., Jones, W.A. and Pfister, J.A.  Damage from the larkspur mirid deters cattle grazing of larkspur.  J. Range Manage 50(4):371-373. 1997. 


Ralphs, M.H. and Stegelmeier, B.L.  Ability of apomorphine and lithium chloride to create food aversions in cattle.  Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 56:129-137. 1998.


Ralphs, M.H., Manners, G.D. and Gardner, D.R.  Influence of light and photosynthesis on alkaloid concentration in larkspur.  J. Chem. Ecol. 24(1):167-182. 1998.


Ralphs, M.H., Manners, G.D. and Gardner, D.R.  Toxic alkaloid response to herbicides used to control tall larkspur.  Weed Sci. 46:116-119. 1998.


Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Jones, W.A. and Manners, G.D.  Diterpenoid alkaloid oncentration in tall larkspur plants damaged by larkspur mirid.  J. Chem. Ecol. 24(5):829-840.  1998.


Ralphs, M.H.  Lithium residue in milk from doses used to condition taste aversions and effects on nursing calves.  Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 61:285-293. 1999.


Ralphs, M.H. and Provenza, F.D.  Conditioned food aversion: principles and practices, with special reference to social facilitation.  Proc. Nutrition Soc. 58:813-820. 1999.


Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R. and Pfister, J.A.  A functional explanation for patterns of norditerpenooid alkaloid levels in tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi).  J. Chem. Ecol. 26(7):1595-1607. 2000.


Ralphs, M.H. and Jones, W.A.  Population cycles of the larkspur mirid (Heteroptera: Miridae). J. Entomol. Sci. 35(4):483-489. 2000.


Ralphs, M.H. and Gardner, D.R.  Alkaloid levels in Duncecap (Delphinium occidentale) and tall larkspur (D. barbeyi) grown in reciprocal gardens: separating genetic from environmental influences.  Biochem. System. Ecol. 29:117-124. 2001.


Ralphs, M.H. and Gardner, D.R.  Influence of defoliation on toxic alkalolid concentration and alkaloid pools in tall larkspur.  J. Chem. Ecol. 27(1):151-160. 2001.


Ralphs, M.H., Provenza, F.D., Pfister, J.A., Graham, D., Duff, G.C. and Greathouse, G. Conditioned food aversion: from theory to practice.  Rangelands 23(2):14-18. 2001.


Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Turner, D.L., Pfister, J.A. and Thacker, E.  Predicting toxicity of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi): measurement of the variation in alkaloid concentration among plants and among years. J. Chem Ecol. 28(11):2327-2341. 2002.


Li, X., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Wang R.R.-C.  Genetic variation within and among 22 accessions of three tall larkspur species (Delphinium spp.) based RAPD markers.  Biochem. System. Ecol. 30: 91-102. 2002.


Welsh, S.L. and Ralphs, M.H. Some tall larkspurs (Delphinium - Ranunculaceae), a taxonomic review.  Biochem. System. Ecol. 30:103-112. 2002.


Ralphs, M.H., Woolsey, L. and Bowns, J.E.   Mechanism by which ammonium fertilizers kill tall larkspur. J. Range Manage. 56(5):524-528. 2003.


Ralphs, M.H. and Gardner, D.R.  Distribution of norditerpene alkaloids in tall larkspur plant parts through the growing season. J. Chem. Ecol. 29(9):2013-2021. 2003.


Ralphs, M.H., Woolsey, L. and Bowns, J.E.   Individual plant control of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) with tebuthiuron.  Weed Technol. 18:248-251. 2004.


Ralphs, M.H.  Conditioning sheep to graze duncecap larkspur (Delphinium occidentale).  Range Ecol. Manage. 58(6):628-631. 2005.

Last Modified: 8/13/2016
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