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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Plant-Associated Toxins (1993)

Agricultural, Phytochemical & Ecological Apsects

Edited by: Steven M. Colegate and Peter R. Dorling

Published by: CAB International, 1994, 581 pages, ISBN 0-85198-909-8


I.  Dedication Acceptance Address:

  • Solving Poisonous Plant Problems by a Team Approach, page 1

II.  Regional, Epidemiologic and Legal Issues:

  • History of Plant Poisoning in Western Australia, page 7
  • Poisonous Plants of Rio Grande do Sul, page 13
  • Plant Toxicoses in North-western India, page 19
  • Poisonous Plants from the Forests of Gujarat, India, page 25
  • Epidemiological Aspects of Plant Poisoning in Camels (Camelus dromeddarius) in Kenya, page 31
  • Poisonous Introduced versus Poisonous Indigenous Plants in Utah, USA, page 35
  • Epidemiology and Ecology of Pimelea Poisoning in Queensland, page 40
  • Ptaquiloside in Bracken Ferns (Pteridium Spp.) from Eastern Australia and from a Cultivated Collection of Bracken from World-wide Sources, page 45
  • The Distribution of Annual Ryegrass Toxicity in Western Australia, page 51
  • Prevalence of teh Causative Agent of Annual Ryegrass Toxicity in Areas Where the Disease is Endemic or Sporadic, page 57
  • Phomopsin Content of Commercial Lupin Seed from Western Australia in 1991/2, page 62
  • Seasonal Oxalate Concentrations of Six Plant Species in the Eastern Wheatbelt of Western Australia, page 66
  • The Regulation of Poisonous Plant Residues in Australia, page 71
  • Toxic Plant Residues in Meat, page 77
  • Plant Toxicants in Milk, page 83
  • The DELTA System: Its Application to Toxic Plants, page 89
  • Computer-assisted Diagnosis of Plant Poisoning Using the PLANTOX Database, page 93
  • PHYTOX: An Expert System to Aid Diagnosis of Plant Poisoning of Animals World-wide, page 95
  • Poisonous Plant Diagnostics in California, page 101

III.  Methods, Measurements and Mechanisms:

  • Polyhydroxy Alkaloid Glycosidase Inhibitors from Poisonous Plants of Global Distribution: Analysis and Identification, page 107
  • Quantitative Assay for the Indolizidine Alkaloid, Swainsonine in the Plant Genera Swainsona, Astragalus and Oxytropis, page 113
  • Swainsonine Production by Root Cultures of Swainsona galegifolia, page 119
  • Structure-Activity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-induced DNA Cross-linking, page 125
  • Monocrotaline Pulmonary Toxicity: Mechanisms and Pathology, page 131
  • Poisoning of Pigs and Poultry by Stock Feed Contaminated with Heliotrope Seed, page 137
  • New Approaches to Studying the Fate of Corynetoxins in Whole Animals and their Products, page 143
  • Liver UDP-GlcNAc:Dolichol Phosphate GlcNAc-1-Phosphate Transferase Activity as an Indicator of ARGT, page 149
  • Quantitative Analysis of Phomopsins in Phomopsis-resistant and Phomopsis-susceptible Lupin Stubbles, page 155
  • Production of Phomopsin A by a Potential Mycoherbicide, Phomopsis emicis, page 161
  • Studies on DNA Adduct Formation by Ptaquiloside, the Carcinogen of Bracken Ferns (Pteridium Spp.), page 167
  • Anagyrine and Ammodendrine Alkaloid Levels in the Blood of Cattle, Sheep and Goats Fed Teratogenic Lupin Species, page 173
  • The Toxic Evaluation of Norditerpenoid Alkaloids in Three Tall Larkspur (Delphinium) Species, page 178
  • Effect of Canavanine on Rumen Microbes in Vitro, page 184
  • Influence of Leucaena Seed and Leaf Meal Diets on Young Chicks, page 189
  • The Effects of Enzyme Treated and Untreated Lupins and Their Alkaloids on Poultry Gut Microflora, page 195
  • The Effect of Gossypol on the Growth and Total Protein of Animal Cells in Culture, page 201

IV.  Isolation and Characterization:

  • New Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Senecio linifolius and S. pterophorus DC, page 207
  • Novel Structured Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Senecio chrysocoma, page 212
  • Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Trollius laxus, page 217
  • Mono- and Diester Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Senecio chrysocoma, page 221
  • Identification of a Cysteine-Glycine Metabolite of Monocrotaline, page 226
  • Identification of Novel Phomopsins in Lupin Seed Extracts, page 232
  • Toxic Analogues of Wedeloside and Carboxyatractyloside from Australian Plant Species, page 238
  • The Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Toxicity of the Hepatotoxic and Nephrotoxic Principles in Terminalia oblongata, page 245
  • The Isolation, Structure Elucidation and Toxicity of the Kaurene Glycosides Parquin and Carboxyparquin in Cestrum parqui, page 251
  • Detection and Isolation of Neurotoxins from Yellow Star Thistle (Centaurea solstitialis), the Cause of Nigropallidal Encephalomalacia, page 257
  • GC-MS Method for Analysis of Steroidal Sapogenins in Plant and Animal Samples Associated with Ovine Photosensitisation, page 263
  • Identification of a Toxin Suspected of Causing Sudden Death in Livestock Grazing Phalaris Pastures, page 269
  • Poison Sedges (Schoenus Spp.): Toxic Effects and Identification of the Toxic Principle, page 275

V.  The Liver:

  • The Role of the Liver in teh Detoxification of Poisonous Plants, page 281
  • The Possible Role of Steroidal Saponins in the Pathogenesis of Geeldikkop, a Major Hepatogenous Photosensitisation of Small Stock in South Africa, page 287
  • Alveld in Lambs in Norway, page 293
  • The Clinicopathologic Changes of Cynoglossum officinale (Houndstongue) Intoxication in Horses, page 297
  • Toxicity of Crotalaria ochroleuca Seeds in Mice, page 303
  • Hepatotoxicosis in Cattle Induced by Consumption of Alfalfa-grass Hay, page 307
  • Clinical and Preclinical Diagnostic Aids to Hepatic Plant Toxicosis in Horses, Sheep and Cattle, page 313
  • Chronic Toxicity of Fumonisin in Pigs, page 319

VI.  The Reproductive System and the Embryo:

  • The Effects of Poisonous Plants on Embryonic and Fetal Development in Livestock, page 325
  • Plant Steroidal Alkaloid Teratogens: Structure-Activity Relations and Implications, page 333
  • Studies on the Abortification Principle of Ponderosa Pine Needles (Pinus ponderosa Laws), page 339
  • Constituents of Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), an Abortification Rangeland Plant, page 345
  • "Acorn" Calves and Retained Placentae Following Grazing on Sandplain Lupins (Lupinus cosentinii), page 351

VII.  The Nervous System:

  • Some Characteristics of Neurones Which Endow Vulnerability to Chemical Toxins, page 357
  • Neuromycotoxicoses in Australia, page 363
  • Correlation of Quantities of Ergovaline and Lolitrem B Toxins to Clinical Cases of Tall Fescue Toxicosis and Perennial Ryegrass Staggers, page 369
  • Responses in Grazing Sheep to Toxins from Perennial Ryegrass/Endophyte Associations, page 375
  • The Many Guises of Ergotism, page 381
  • The Evidence Against the Existence of So-called Convulsive Ergotism in Ruminants, page 387
  • Identification of Corynetoxins as the Cause of Poisoning Associated with Annual Beardgrass (Polypogon monspeliensis (L) Desf.) and Blown Grass (Agrostis avenacea C. Gemelin), page 393
  • Tunicaminyluracil Toxicity, an Emerging Problem in Livestock Fed Grass or Cereal Products, page 399
  • Pathogenesis of Corynetoxin Poisoning, page 405
  • Corynetoxicosis of Livestock: A Nematode-Bacterium Disease Complex Associated with Different Grasses, page 410
  • Selenium Poisoning in Cattle, page 416

VIII.  Control, Prevention and Treatment of Poisoning:

  • Vaccination Against Poisoning Diseases, page 421
  • Field Evaluations of Vaccines Against Lupinosis, page 427
  • Lupinosis Vaccine: Positive Relationship Between Anti-phomopsin IgG Concentration and Protection in Victorian Field Trials, page 433
  • Opportunities for Biological Control of the Toxigenic Anguina/Clavibacter Association in Annual Ryegrass, page 439
  • Metabolic Transformation of Corynetoxin and Tunicamycin by Alternaria alternata, page 445
  • Detoxification of Annual Ryegrass Toxins by Sphingobacterium multivorum, page 451
  • Fluoroacetate Metabolism by a Bacterium from Dichapetalum braunii, page 457
  • Review of Ruminal Microbes Relative to Detoxification of Plant Toxins and Environmental Pollutants, page 462
  • Control of Poisonous Plants in the Western United States, page 468
  • Peer Pressure (Social Facilitation) Influences Livestock to Graze Toxic Plants, page 473
  • Conditions of Livestock Poisoning and Management Strategies to Reduce Risks, page 478
  • Why Do Most Cattle Survive Tall Larkspur Ingestion?, page 484
  • Control of Duncecap Larkspur (Delphinium occidentale S. Wats) at Two Growth Stages with Various Herbicides, page 490
  • Efforts to Improve Animal Tolerance of Ingested Snakeweed Foliage, page 495
  • Locoweed Intoxication in Range Cattle and Sheep: Serum ?-Mannosidase Activity and Clinicopathologic Alterations, page 501
  • Zinc, Molybdenum and Sulfur for Prevention of Facial Eczema in Sheep, page 507
  • Selenium Metabolism in the Rumen, page 512

IX.  Miscellaneous Topics:

  • Benefits of Plant Phototoxins: Antiviral Properties, page 517
  • The Clinico-toxicological Differentiation of Phalaris Spp. Toxicity Syndromes in Ruminants, page 523
  • Gousiekte, an Important Plant-induced Cardiotoxicosis of Ruminants in Southern Africa Caused by Certain Members of the Rubiaceae, page 529
  • Cardiac Manifestations o Oleander Poisoning in Cattle and Donkeys, page 534
  • Treatment of Oleander Poisoning in Cattle and Donkeys, page 538
  • Toxicity of Plant-derived Aliphatic Nitrotoxins, page 541
  • Avocado (Persea americana) Poisoning in Ostriches, page 546
  • The Toxicity of Avocado Leaves (Persea americana) for the Heart and Lactating Mammary Gland of the Mouse, page 552
  • A Pasture-related Nephrotoxicosis of Cattle in Norway: Clinical Signs and Pathological Findings, page 557
  • The Subchronic Toxicity of Roridin A in Sheep, page 561
  • Weaner Illthrift of Cattle Grazing Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens) in Papua New Guinea, page 567

Last Modified: 8/13/2016
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