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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Image Number D1938-1

Immersion vaccines have been used for decades, but current work on developing alternative methods of vaccine delivery through feeding is promising. Here, molecular biologist Craig Shoemaker (left) and microbiologist Phillip Klesius demonstrate a technique where channel catfish are immersed in water containing the modified live Streptococcus iniae vaccine.


Photo by Julia Pridgeon.

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Last Modified: 8/12/2016
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