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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Characteristics of Apple Rootstock
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Information provided by Paul Domoto, Department of Horticulture, Iowa State University and Dr. Jim Cummins, Cornell University (retired).
Rootstock
Size (1)
Fruiting
Anchorage
Hardiness
Soil Adaptability
Crown Rot
Fire Blight
Remarks
P.18+100%Slow bearing, moderate productivityWell anchoredConsidered hardy, more testing neededWidely adapted Very resistantModerately resistantVery little suckering, very few burrknots (2). May be susceptible to late winter freezes.
Seedling100%Slow bearing, yield variableWell anchoredHardyWidely adaptedVariableTolerant65-85% size control with spur-type Red Delicious strains; some size control with other spur-type strains. Suckering may be a problem: very few burrknots (2).
Antonovka 313100%Slow bearing, moderate productivityWell anchored, but subject to leaningModerateWidely adaptedResistantModerately susceptibleSome suckering; few burrknots (2). Maybe susceptible to late winter freezes.
M.480 - 85 %Moderately early bearing, good productivityWell anchored but, subject to leaningModerateWidely adaptedResistantTolerantMost productive vigorous rootstock in regional testing. Moderate to heavy suckering; few burrknots (2).
MM.11180 - 85 %Moderately slow bearing, medium prodctivityWell anchoredModerateAdapted to most soils; drought tolerant, but does not tolerate wet feetTolerant on well drained soilsTolerantTree form is more up-right. Little suckering; prone to burrknots (2). Semi-dwarf with spur-type Delicious strains. Moderately susceptible to tomato ringspot virus (3).
MM.10670 - 75 %Early bearing, productiveGood on most soilsVery susceptible early, hardy late winterBeast in loam and sandy loam soils. Avoid poorly drained soilsVery susceptibleModerately susceptibleVery little suckering; prone to burrknots (2). Very susceptible to tomato virus ringspot (3).
B.49070 - 75 % Early bearing, moderate productivityWell anchoredConsidered hardy; more testing neededWell adapted to most soilsModerately resistantTolerantMay be a replacement for MM.106. May be susceptible to late winter freezes. Almost no suckering; few burrknots (2)
Cornell - Geneva 21060 - 65 %Early bearing, productiveAnchored questionableNeeds testingNeeds testingResistantResistantSuckering may be a problem. May be released soon.
M.7a, EMLA 760 - 65 %Early bearing, moderate productivityFree-standing but leans with some cultivarsModerate; roots tender, snow cover for best protectionWell adapted on most soils except heavy claySlightly susceptible on poorly drained soilsTolerantSuckers heavily; somewhat prone to burrknots (2). Most widely adapted clonally propagated rootstock.
Geneva 3060 - 65 %Earlier bearing and more productive than M.7aUsually well anchoredTesting requiredWell adapted to most soilsTolerantResistantPromising new rootstock. Much less prone to suckering than M.7a; burrknots (2) rare. Susceptible to common latent viruses (4). Available
M.26, EMLA 2655 - 60 %Very early bearing, productiveMay need support in early yearsHardiest M. or MM. series rootstock; somewhat slow to harden-offWell drained soilsModerately susceptible on poorly drained soilsVery susceptibleVery little suckering; very prone to burrknots (2). Susceptible to tomato ringspot virus (3). Compatibility problems have been identified with some cultivars
Geneva 1155 - 60 %Very early bearing, very productiveMay need support in early yearsTesting requiredWell adapted on most soilsModerately resistantModerately resistantPromising new rootstock. Little suckering; very few burrknots (2). Available
Ottawa 3 (O.3)50 - 55 %Early bearing, very productiveMay need supportAs hardy as M.26Well drained soilsResistant on most soilsSusceptible Roots poorly; may be a factor in orchard establishment. Moderate suckering; very few burrknots (2). Moderately susceptible to tomato ringspot virus (3) and common latent viruses (4)
EMLA 945 - 50 %Very early bearing, very productiveNeeds supportSlightly hardier than M.7aWell drained soilsResistant on most soilsVery susceptibleSuckers heavily; prone to burrknots (2).
M.9, M.9 - T337 & other M.9 Strains40 - 45 %Very early bearing, very productiveNeeds supportSlightly hardier than M.7aWell drained soilsResistant on most soilsVery susceptibleSuckers heavily; prone to burrknots (2).
Geneva 1645 - 50 %Very early bearing, very productiveVery good, support needed for cropNeeds testingNeeds testingTolerant Very resistantVery little suckering; no burrknots (2). Very sensitive to common latent viruses (4). Available
Mark35 - 45 %Very early bearing, very productiveRoots are brittle, needs supportHardy early, but susceptible in late winterBest on well drained soils; drought susceptibleResistant on most soilsSusceptibleVery prone to abnormal swelling of rootstock at ground line that stunts the tree. Moderate suckering; prone to burrknots (2). Moderately susceptible to tomato ringspot virus (3)
Bud. 9 (B.9)35 - 40 %Very early bearing, very productiveNeeds supportHardier thaan M.9Well drained soils, does not tolerate wet soilsVery resistantSusceptiblePromising new rootstock. Some suckering; very few burrknots (2). Drought susceptible. Susceptible to tomato ringspot virus (3). ISU observations suggest it is very susceptible to voles.
Geneva 6535 - 40 %Very early bearing, very productive. Fruit size reduced.Well anchored, support needed for cropHardyNeeds testingResistantVery resistantPromising new rootstock. Some suckering; nearly no burrknots (2). Susceptible to apple stem grooving virus (4). Available.
P.235 - 40 %Very early bearing, very productiveNeeds supportNeeds further testingWell drained soilsResistantModerately susceptibleVery little suckering; few burrknots (2). Susceptible to tomato ringspot virus (3).
M.27, EMLA 2725 - 30 %Very early bearing, very productive. Fruit size reducedNeeds supportSlow to harden-offWell drained soilsResistant on most soilsSusceptibleToo dwarfing for standard orchards; has potential for vigorous cultivars in very high density plantings. Almost no suckering or burrknots (2). Susceptible to tomato ringspot virus (3).
P.2225 - 30%Very early bearing, productiveNeeds supportNeeds further testingWell drained soilsResistant Moderately susceptibleToo dwarfing for standard orchards; has potential as a rootstock for vigorous cultivars in a very high density planting. Very little suckering; very few burrknots (2)
Interstem/ Rootstock
M.27, M.9/ MM.10650 - 60 % (5)Early bearing, productiveGood in most soils; may need support on light soils or when the interstem-rootstock graft union is above groundSlightly hardier with interstem-rootstock graft union is below groundWell drained soils; better adapted with interstem-rootstock graft union below groundMost tolerant with interstem-rootstock graft union below groundSusceptible as M.27 or M.9Suckering is a problem; can be reduced by planting interstem-rootstock graft union below ground. Additional cost
M.27, M.9/ MM.11150 - 60 % (5)Early bearing, productiveGood in most soils; may need support on light soils or when the interstem-rootstock graft union is above groundModerateWidely adapted to most soilsTolerant on most soilsSusceptible as M.27 or M.9Suckering is a problem; can be reduced by planting interstem-rootstock graft union below ground. Additional cost
(1) Size control as a percentage of the size of a cultivar on a seedling rootstock. Remember that the vigor of the scion cultivar also influences the ultimate size of the tree on any rootstock.
(2) Burrknots are above ground root primordia that form under shaded conditions (either from a truck wrap or excessive suckering). They are very sensitive to winter injury, and a potential point of entry for fire blight bacteria.
(3) Tomato ringspot virus is a nematode-transmitted virus that can include Apple Union Necrosis and Decline disease when a sensitive cultivar is propagated on a sensitive rootstock. It has not yet been found in Iowa, but as a precaution, purchase virus-free trees. If the disease is ever found in your orchard, avoid combination of a sensitive cultivar propagated on a sensitive rootstock. Cultivars sensitive to tomato ringspot virus include: Red Delicious, McIntosh, Paulared, Spartan, Tydeman's Red, and Stayman.
(4) Virus problems can be greatly reduced by selecting virus-free cultivars
(5) Used as interstems, M.27 and M.9 produce similar sized trees. With the present propagation practice of using 6- to 8-inch interstem sections, relative tree size is more dependent upon planting depth: With the interstem-rootstock graft union above the ground, tree size between M.9 and M.26; with the interstem-rootstock graft union below ground, tree size is between M.26 and M.7a and depends upon how much of the interstem is exposed.

Last Modified: 8/13/2016
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