I thank Douglas Ferguson who answered many questions about pyraloid larvae when I first began working at the Systematic Entomology Laboratory (SEL), USDA. I am grateful to all the port identifiers (especially D. Riley, S. Broda-Hydorn, and L. Pagan Gallardo) who sent material, asked questions, and asked for more clarification. Terry Nuhn, SEL, USDA, scanned the images into Adobe Pagemaker, Pete Touhey, SEL, USDA, retrieved data from the SELIS database, and Jon Lewis, SEL, USDA, retrieved data from specimens in the USNM collection. I thank Joe Cavey and Steve Passoa, APHIS-PPQ, USDA, Dave Smith and Natalia Vandenberg, SEL, ARS, USDA, and Dale Habeck, University of Florida at Gainesville, for reviewing the manuscript and providing invaluable suggestions. I especially thank Jon Lewis, SEL, USDA, and Steve Passoa for comments that improved the manuscript.