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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Type Specimen Symbols
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Symbols and Abbreviations

Female = female(s)
Male = male(s)
= larva(e), juvenile(s), or young
*Allo. = allotype
Allolecto. = allolectotype
*Holo. = holotype
Hololecto. = hololectotype
Holoneo. = holoneotype
*Lecto. = lectotype
*Neo. = neotype
Paedo. = paedotype
*Para. = paratype(s)
                                *Paralecto. = paralectotype(s)
Paraneo. = paraneotype(s)
*Syn. = syntype(s)
Topo. = topotype(s)

= vial (necessarily used in some cases rather than a slide.)

The type categories listed above that are preceded by an asterisk (*) are officially recognized and defined in the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Ride et al., 1985). The additional categories are given to indicate that the source of these specimens is from the same population or collection from which the official type specimen(s) were obtained and designated. For example, "paedotype" was used in a description of a new Meloidogyne species to designate a single juvenile specimen (J2) (Franklin, 1965), mounted separately and with some morphometrics, in addition to the designated "holotype" and "allotype" specimen.

Last Modified: 8/13/2016
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