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Remote Sensing Basics

I. Sources of Imagery

II. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N)

III. Imaging Theory: What to Expect

IV. Simple Tools for Checking Image Data Quality

V. Choice of Spectral Bands

VI. Final Thoughts and Suggestions

VII. Resources and References




VII. References and Resources

The following resources have proven useful and are provided with notes so that readers will more easily find specific information.

Web Sites

Airborne Remote Sensing

John Bolton's virtual Center for Airborne Remote Sensing Technology Development. An excellent source of links. There is also a very good, brief explanation of airborne sensor calibration issues.

Satellites and Systems

NASA Earth Observer - 1 new technology demonstrator satellite.

NASA Landsat satellite.

NASA Terra satellite MODIS instrument.

3Di, LLC, airborne data provider and vendor of AISA systems.

Specim - the Finnish company that builds AISA. Accuracy Standards

Federal Geographic Data Committee

American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 1995 Draft Standards for Aerial Photography

American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing Digital Imagery Guideline Committee


Instrumentation, Radiometry and Calibration

1. McCluney, Ross, 1994. Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry. Boston, Artech House, 402 pp. A useful resource on the basics of radiometric measurement. Notable for its explanations of geometry, units, basics of radiation measurement, optics. A good, readable introduction to the concepts.

2. Schott, John R., 1997. Remote Sensing: The Image Chain Approach. New York, Oxford Univ. Press. 394 pp. An advanced remote sensing textbook. Many elements are updates on topics covered by the book by Slater (below).

3. Slater, P. N., 1980. Remote Sensing: Optics and Optical Systems, Reading, Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., 575 pp. Classic book covering the technical details of remote sensing from radiometry, interactions of solar radiation with the atmosphere and the earth's surface, optics, units, spectroradiometric calibration, BRDF, etc. Notable for its description of the Suits vegetation canopy reflectance model (basis for the SAIL model) starting on p 256, MTF in Appendix 1.

4. Smith, G. M. and P.J. Curran, 2000. "Methods for Estimating Image Signal-to-Noise Ration (SNR)", Chapt. 5 in Atkinson, P.M. and N.J. Tate, Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, 273 pp.
A summary of methods used to calculate imaging system S/N from imagery.

Radiative Interactions with the Atmosphere and Earth Surface Features

1. Asrar, G., (ed.), Theory and Applications of Optical Remote Sensing, 1989. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 734 pp.
A useful reference on many remote sensing science topics. The chapter on The Atmospheric Effect on Remote Sensing and its Correction (p. 336) is an especially good introduction to the topic.

Imaging Theory and Image Processing

1. Castleman, Kenneth R., Digital Image Processing. 1982, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, Inc.429 pp. Introductory image processing text for computer science courses on the topic. The section on imaging theory describing the convolution process on p.145 is especially helpful.

2. Jensen, John R., Introductory Digital Image Processing: A Remote Sensing Perspective. 2nd Edition, 1996, Upper Saddle River, Prentice-Hall, Inc. 318 pp. Introductory image processing text for environmental remote sensing courses. The chapter on Image Preprocessing and a part of the Image Enhancement chapter on Special Transformations are especially useful.

3. Russ, John C., The Image Processing Handbook, 4th Edition, 2002. Boca Raton, CRC Press Inc., 732 pp. A useful, general reference covering all aspects of digital image processing and digital imaging. Easy to read.

Journal Articles and Proceedings Papers

Instrumentation, Radiometry and Calibration

Moran, M.S., T.R. Clarke, J. Qi, E.M. Barnes and P.J. Pinter, Jr., 1997. Videography and Color Photography in Resource Assessment. Practical techniques for convesion of airborne imagery to reflectances. Proc. Of 16th Biennial Workshop on Videography and Color Photography in Resource Assessment, Weslaco, TX April 29-May 1, 1997. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing and the USDA Subtropical Agricultural Research Laboratory.


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