- Knowledge of the number of servings from different food groups that a person should eat each day.
- Perceived adequacy of own diet compared with what is healthy.
- Knowledge of which foods contain more saturated fat and total fat, which kind of fat is more likely to be a liquid, characteristics of foods with and without cholesterol, characteristics of foods containing only vegetable oil, meaning of foods labeled "light."
- Awareness of health problems related to selected dietary components or being overweight.
- Knowledge of whether a specified amount of fat, sodium, cholesterol, fiber, or saturated fat is a low or a high amount.
- Self-assessment of weight status: overweight, underweight, or about right.
- Agreement or disagreement with statements about beliefs with potential to influence dietary behavior.
- Perceived importance of dietary guidance.
Factors related to grocery shopping:
- Importance of safety, nutrition, price, how well the food keeps, how easy the food is to prepare, taste.
Food label questions:
- Use of specific sections on labels such as the list of ingredients and the nutrition panel and ease of understanding of these sections.
- Frequency of use of information on calories or specified nutrients on the food label.
- Frequency of looking for nutrition information on the label when buying specified types of food products.
- Confidence that descriptions such as "low-fat" or "low-cholesterol" are a reliable basis for choosing foods.
- Knowledge of whether the meaning of terms such as "low-cholesterol" is defined and enforced by the government.
- Agreement or disagreement with statements regarding labels such as "the nutrition information on food labels is useful to me" and "reading food labels takes more time than I can spare."
- Attitudes toward use of food labels.
- Frequency of substituting lower-fat items instead of similar higher-fat items.
- Frequency of adding butter, margarine, sour cream, cheese, or creamy sauce to potatoes and other cooked vegetables.
- Frequency of consumption of fried chicken and frequency of removing skin before eating chicken.
- Amount of butter or margarine spread on breads and muffins.
- Frequency of eating bakery products and chips.
- Frequency of eating beef, pork, or lamb at the main meal; size of portion; and frequency of trimming visible fat.
- Frequency of eating eggs.
- Frequency of washing fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Frequency of peeling fresh fruits.
- Frequency of eating peels on fresh vegetables with edible peels and eating outer leaves of leafy vegetables like lettuce and cabbage.
- Age, sex, race, ethnic origin (Hispanic).
- Education level for all household members 15 years and older.
- Work status for all household members 15 years and older: occupation, number of hours worked last week, usual hours worked, reason not working.
- Pregnancy or lactation status; breastfeeding status of children 3 years old or less.
- Region: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West.
- Urbanization: Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)--central city, MSA--outside central city, nonMSA.
- Household size and composition.
- Income: last year's household income before taxes, income as a percentage of the poverty thresholds, last month's income by source, savings or cash assets under $5,000.
- Day-1 sampling weights: final 3-year weights and a weight for each year: 1994, 1995, 1996.
- 2-day sampling weights: final 3-year weights and a weight for each year: 1994, 1995, 1996.
- Day of week of intake.
- Month of intake.
- Variance-estimation stratum.
- Variance-estimation unit.
The Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) was a telephone follow-up to the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The two surveys were designed so that individuals'diet and health knowledge and attitudes could be linked with their food choices and nutrient intakes. The questions below were asked of adults age 20 years and over.