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Dr. Bryan A. Bailey
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 Educational Background:

Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS. 1976-1981, Major: Agronomy, B.S. 1981.

Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS. 1981-1982, Major: Agronomy, M.S. 1982.

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 1983-1987, Major: Genetics, Ph.D. 1987.

 Photo of cell death caused by Nep1
Photo of cell death caused by Nep1


Dr. Bailey has developed considerable expertise in methods for studying plant defense mechanisms and plant pathogen interactions and has initiated new areas of research associated with microbial proteins that elicit plant cell death. Dr. Bailey discovered that a 22-kDa xylanase (EIX) from the biocontrol agent Trichoderma viridecould induce defense responses in tobacco. The responses to EIX include rapid necrosis (Bailey et al. 1992a), changes in membrane permeability (Bailey et al., 1992a, Bailey et al., 1993), and glycosylation and fatty acylation of phytosterols (Moreau et al., 1994). EIX was transported throughout a plant by the vascular system (Sharon et al., 1992). Dr. Bailey cloned an EIX induced ACC synthase from tobacco (Bailey et al., 1992b) that was used to prove that ACC synthase transcript accumulated in EIX treated tissues in a time course corresponding to ethylene production (Avni et al., 1994).

Dr. Bailey identified, isolated, and characterized a protein (Nep1) from Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. erythroxylithat causes necrosis and induces ethylene in coca leaves (Bailey, 1995). The gene for Nep1 was cloned allowing for genetic manipulation in F. oxysporumand other plant pathogens (Nelson et al., 1998). Nep1 has been disrupted and over expressed in F oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli without influencing pathogenicity (Bailey et al., In Press). Dr. Bailey discovered the herbicidal potential of the fungal protein Nep1 against many dicot weed species (Jennings et al. 2000). Subsequent work by Dr. Bailey demonstrated that Nep1 is compatible with biological (Bailey et al., 2000b; Bailey et al., 2000c) and chemical herbicides.

Dr. Bailey carried out laboratory and field experiments resulting in development of a biocontrol strategy for the narcotic plant Erythroxylum cocausing the plant pathogenic fungus F. oxysporum. Dr. Bailey characterized aspects of the ecology and biology of infestation and spread of F. oxysporumf. sp. erythroxyliin the field and greenhouse (Bailey et al., 1998). Dr. Bailey directed studies of a natural epiphytotic of coca wilt in the Huallaga Valley of Peru (Nelson et al., 1997). Two pathogenic genotypes were identified based on RAPD patterns and vegetative compatibility groups. Dr. Bailey subsequently carried out the field, greenhouse and laboratory studies assessing the bioherbicidal potential of Pleospora papaveraceaand Dendryphion penicillatumon opium poppy (Bailey et al., 2000a). Dr. Bailey characterized environmental parameters (time, temperature and moisture) required for poppy infection by P. papaveraceaand D. penicillatumconidia. This work produced the first SEM photographs of the infection processes of conidia of these fungi.

Dr. Bailey is now characterizing the molecular responses of Theobroma cacaoto biotic and abiotic stresses. Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate, is considered an alternative crop to the narcotic crop coca. Dr. Bailey has developed a program accessing the responses of Theobroma cacaoto inducers of plant defense, endophytes, and plant pathogens. This work is ongoing and has already resulted in the identification of over 300 potential stress response genes in cacao. In addition, many basic aspects of the interactions between Theobroma cacaoand microbes have been described. Multiple cooperative agreements have been arranged with both State and International laboratories preparing a foundation for future research.


  1. Bailey, B. A. Accelerated aging and trifluralin effects on cotton. Mississippi State University. 1982. (M.S. Thesis).

  2. Bailey, B. A. and Bourland, F. M. The influence of seed quality on response of cotton seedlings to the preplant herbicide trifluralin. Field Crops Res. 13: 375-382. 1986.

  3. Bailey, B. A. Resistance to Puccinia polysorain Zea maysL.: identification, genetic transmission (Linkages) and induced molecular responses. Texas A&M University. 1987. (Ph. D. Dissertation).

  4. Bailey, B. A., Brown, C. and Fredericksen, R. A. Slow rusting character of maize inbreds as measured by area under the disease progress curve. Biolo. and Cult. Test 2: 34. 1987.

  5. Bailey, B. A., Schuh, W., and Fredericksen, R. A. Identification of slow-rusting resistance to Puccinia polysorain maize inbreds and single crosses. Plant Dis. 71: 518-521. 1987.

  6. Bailey, B. A. and Larson, R. L. The distinction between hydroxamic acid and flavonoid glucosylation in maize. Current Topics in Plant Biochemistry and Physiology. Ed. Randall, D. D. and Blevins, D. G. University of Missouri, Columbia, pp. 295. 1989.

  7. Bailey, B. A. and Larson, R. L. Hydroxamic acid glucosyltransferases from maize seedlings. Plant Physiol. 90: 1071-1076. 1989.

  8. Anderson, J. D., Bailey, B. A., Dean, J. F. D. and Taylor, R. A fungal endoxylanase elicits ethylene biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacumL. cv. Xanthi) leaves. In Polyamines and Ethylene Biochemistry, Physiology, and Interactions. H.E. Flores, R.N. Arteca, J.C. Shanon, Eds, pp 146-156. 1990.

  9. Bailey, B. A., Dean, J. F. D. and Taylor, R., Anderson, J. D. A model for host-pathogen interactions in plants: the effect of TrichodermaEIX on Nicotiana tabacumcv. Xanthi. In Polyamines and Ethylene Biochemistry, Physiology, and Interactions. H.E. Flores, R.N. Arteca, J.C. Shanon, Eds, pp 146-156. 1990.

  10. Bailey, B. A., Dean, J. F. D. and Anderson, J. D. An ethylene biosynthesis-inducing endoxylanase elicits electrolyte leakage and necrosis in Nicotiana tabacumcv. Xanthi Leaves. Plant Physiology 94: 1849-1854. 1990.

  11. Bailey, B. A. and Larson, R. L. Maize microsomal benzoxazinone N-monooxygenase. Plant Physiology 95: 792-796. 1991.

  12. Bailey, B. A., R. Taylor, R., Dean, J. F. D. and Anderson, J. D. Ethylene biosynthesis-inducing endoxylanase is translocated through the xylem of Nicotiana tabacumcv. Xanthi plants. Plant Physiology 97: 1181-1186. 1991.

  13. Anderson, J. D., Bailey, B. A., Taylor, R., Sharon, A., Avni, A., Mattoo, A. K. and Fuch, Y. The role of ethylene in elicitor-induced plant responses. Trans. of the Malaysian Soci. of Plant Physiology, 3: 124-128. 1992.

  14. Bailey, B. A. and Anderson, J. D. Allelopathy. In McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology. 1993. S.P. Parker Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 16-19. 1992.

  15. Bailey, B. A., Korcak, R. F. and Anderson, J. D. Alterations in Nicotiana tabacumcv. Xanthi cell membrane function following treatment with an ethylene biosynthesis inducing endoxylanase. Plant Physiol. 100: 749-755. 1992.

  16. Bailey, B. A., Avni, A., Li, N., Mattoo, A. K. and Anderson, J. D. Nucleotide sequence of the Nicotiana tabacumcv Xanthi gene encoding 1-amino- cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase, Plant Physiol. 100: 1615-1616. 1992.

  17. Taylor, R., Bailey, B. A., Dean, J. F. D. and Anderson, J. D. Translocation of a fungal protein in plants. In Tissue Printing: Tools for the Study of Anatomy, Histochemistry and Gene Expression, P.D. Reed, R.F. Pont-Lezica, Academic Press, Orlando. pp 54-56. 1992.

  18. Sharon, A., Bailey, B. A., McMurtry, J. P., Taylor, R. and Anderson, J. D. Characteristics of Ethylene-Inducing Xylanase movement in tobacco leaves. Plant Physiol. 100: 2059-2065. 1992.

  19. Anderson, J. D., Bailey, B. A., Taylor, R., Sharon, A., Avni, A., Mattoo, A. K. and Fuchs, Y. Fungal xylanase, elicits ethylene biosynthesis and other defense responses in tobacco. In Cellular and Molecular Aspects of the Plant Hormone Ethylene. J-C. Pech, A. Latche, C. Balague Eds. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordech, The Netherlands. pp 197-204. 1993.

  20. Bailey, B. A., Korcak, R. F. and Anderson, J. D. Sensitivity to an ethylene biosynthesis-inducing endoxylanase in Nicotiana tabacumL. cv. Xanthi is controlled by a single dominant gene. Plant Physiol. 101: 1081-1088. 1993.

  21. Avni, A., Bailey, B. A., Mattoo, A. K., and Anderson, J. D. Induction of ethylene biosynthesis in Nicotiana tabacumby a Trichoderma viridexylanase is correlated to the accumulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase transcripts. Plant Physiol. 106: 1049-1055. 1994.

  22. Moreau, R. A., Powell, M. J., Whitaker, B. D., Bailey, B. A. and Anderson, J. D. Xylanase treatment of plant cells induces glycosylation and fatty acylation of phytosterols. Physiol. Plant. 91: 575-580. 1994.

  23. Bailey, B. A. Avni, A., and Anderson, J. D. The influence of ethylene on the sensitivity of xanthi tobacco leaves to a Trichoderma viridexylanase. Plant Cell Physiol. 36: 1669-1676. 1995.

  24. Bailey, B. A. Purification of a protein from culture filtrates of Fusarium oxysporumthat induces ethylene and necrosis in leaves of Erythroxylum coca. Phytopathology 85: 1250-1255. 1995.

  25. Bailey, B. A., Jennings, J. C., and Anderson, J. D. The sensitivity of Erythroxylum cocavar. coca leaves to stress: Their response to ethylene and fungal protein preparations. Weed Science 45: 716-721. 1997.

  26. Bailey, B. A., Hebbar, P., Strem, M. D., Darlington, L. C., Lumsden, R. D. An alginate prill formulation of Fusarium oxysporumSchlechtend:FR. f. sp. erythroxyli for biocontrol of Erythroxylum cocavar. coca. Biocontrol of Science and Technology 7: 423-435. 1997.

  27. Gracia-Garza, J. A., Bailey, B. A., Paulitz, T. C., Lumsden, R. D. Reeleder, R. D., Roberts, D. P. Effect of sclerotial damage Sclerotinia sclerotiorumon the mycoparasitic activity of Trichoderma hamatum. Biocontrol Science and Technology 7: 401-413. 1997.

  28. Anderson, J. D., Cardinale, F. C., Jennings, J. C., Norman, H. A., Avni, A., Hanania, U., Bailey, B. A. Involvement of ethylene in protein elicitor-induced plant responses. In: Biology and Biotechnology of the Plant Hormone Ethylene. Kanellis. A. K., Ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers. Netherlands. pp 267-274. 1997.

  29. Bailey, B. A., Jennings, J. C., Anderson, J. D. The 24 kDa protein from Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. erythroxyli: occurrence in related fungi and the effect of growth medium on its production. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 43: 45-55. 1997.

  30. Nelson, A. J., Elias, K. S., Arevalo, E., Darlington, L. C., and Bailey, B. A. Genetic characterization by RAPD analysis of isolates of Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. erythroxyli associated with an emerging epidemic in Peru. Phytopathology. 87: 1220-1225. 1997.

  31. Hanson, L. A., Bailey, B., Frederiksen, R., Smith, J. D., Magill, C. Early events in the interaction between maize and southern rust. Maydica 42: 339-346. 1997.

  32. Bailey, B. A., Apel-Birkhold, P.-C., Gracia-Garza, J., Hebbar, K. P., Nelson, A. J., Lumsden, R. D., and Elias, K. S. Strategies for biocontrol of narcotic plants. Section 4, In: Proceedings of the 1997 ONDCP International Technology Symposium, August 18-21, Chicago, IL. pp. 25-33. 1997.

  33. Hebbar, P., Lumsden, R. D., Lewis, J., Poch, S. M., Bailey. B. A. Formulation of mycoherbicidal strains of Fusarium oxysporum. Weed Science 46: 501-507. 1998.

  34. Bailey, B. A., Hebbar, K. P., Strem, M., Darlington, L. C., Connick, W., and Lumsden, R. D. Formulations of Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. erythroxylifor biocontrol of Erythroxylum cocavar. coca. Weed Science 46: 682-689. 1998.

  35. Bailey, B. A. and Apel-Birkhold, P. C., Peptide produced by Fusarium oxysporumwhich kill plant cells. In:1998 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN. pp. 120-123. 1998.

  36. Gracia-Garza, J. A., Fravel, D. R., Bailey, B. A., and Hebbar, P. Dispersal of formulations of Fusarium oxysporumf. sp. erythroxyli and F. oxysporumf. sp. melonisby ants. Phytopathology 88: 185-189. 1998.

  37. Nelson, A. J., Birkhold, P. C., and Bailey, B. A. Molecular characterization of NEP1, a gene encoding the 24 kA elicitor from Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. erythroxyli. Plant Molecular Biology, 38: 911-912. 1998.

  38. Bailey, B. A. and Lumsden, R. D. Direct effects of Trichodermaand Gliocladiumon plant growth and resistance to pathogens. In: Trichodermaand Gliocladium, Vol. 2, C. P. Kubicek and G. E. Harman, Eds., Taylor and Francis, Ltd, Bristol, PA. pp. 185-204. 1998.

  39. Gracia-Garza, J. A., Fravel, D. R., Nelson, A. J., Elias, K. S., Bailey, B. A., Arevalo Gardini, E. Potential for dispersal of Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. erythroxyliby infested seed. Plant Disease 83:451-455. 1998.

  40. Hebbar, K. P., Poch, S. M., Bailey, B. A., and Lumsden, R. D. An improved granular formulation for a mycoherbicidal strain of Fusarium oxysporum, Weed Science 47: 473-478. 1999.

  41. Jennings, J. C., Bailey, B. A., Anderson, J. D. Induction of ethylene biosynthesis and necrosis in weed leaves by a Fusarium oxysporumprotein. Weed Science 48: 7-14. 2000.

  42. O'Neill, N. R., Jennings, J. C., Bailey, B. A., and Farr, D. F. Dendryphion penicillatumand Pleospora papaveracea, destructive seed-borne pathogens and potential mycoherbicides for Papaver somniferum. Phytopathology 90: 691-698. 2000.

  43. Bailey, B. A., Apel-Birkhold, P. C., O'Neill, N. R., Plaskowitz, J., Alavi, S., Jennings, J. C., and Anderson, J. D. Evaluation of infection processes and resulting disease caused by Dendryphion penicillatumand Pleospora papaveraceaon Papaver somniferum. Phytopathology 90: 699-709. 2000.

  44. Bailey, B. A., Collins, R., and Anderson, J. A. Factors influencing the herbicidal activity of Nep1, a fungal protein that induces the hypersensitive response in Centaurea maculosa, Weed Science 48: 776-785. 2000.

  45. Bailey, B. A., Apel-Birkhold, P. C., Akingbe, O. O., Ryan, J. R., O'Neill, N. R., and Anderson, J. D. Nep1 protein from Fusarium oxysporumenhances biological control of opium poppy by Pleospora papaveracea. Phytopathology 90: 812-818. 2000.

  46. Baker, C. J., Mock, N., Deahl, K. L., and Bailey, B. A. Oxygen metabolism in Plant/Pathogen Interactions: Characterization of the oxygen uptake response of bacteria, Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 59: 17-23. 2001.

  47. Jennings, J. C., Birkhold, P. C., Mock, N. M., Baker, C. J., Bailey, B. A., and Anderson, J. D. Induction of defense responses in tobacco by the 24 kA elicitor from Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Science 161: 891-899. 2001.

  48. Bowers, J. H., Bailey, B. A., Hebbar, P. K., Sanogo, S., and Lumsden, R. D. The impact of plant diseases on world chocolate production. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2001-0709-01-RV. 2001.

  49. Bailey, B. A., Apel-Birkhold, P. C., and Luster, D. G. Manipulation of Nep1 production by Fusarium oxysporumusing gene disruption and overexpression. Phytopathology 92: 833-841. 2002.

  50. Sanogo, S., Pomella, A., Hebbar, P. K., Bailey, B., Costa, J. C. B., Samuels, G. J., and Lumsden, R.D. Production and germination of conidia by Trichoderma stromaticum, a mycoparasite of Crinipellis perniciosaon cacao. Phytopathology 92: 1032-1037. 2002.