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Walter Schmidt
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Environmental Microbial & Food Safety Lab
10300 Baltimore Avenue
Building 303 BARC-East, Room 011
Beltsville, MD 20705 USA
Phone 301.504.6765
Fax 301.504.9466

Using an injection molder at the Environmental Management and Byproduct Utilization Laboratory, chemist Walter Schmidt (center) works with colleagues to produce biodegradable flowerpots from chicken feathers. Photo by Stephen Ausmus.

From the ARS database: Current Projects, Publications, and ARS News articles

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Patents and Publications


  1. Schmidt, W.F. Use of nitrogen-containing compounds as plasticzers for peptide-based biopolymers and uses thereof.U.S. Patent 9,706,789. July 18,2017. 
  2. Barone, J.R. and Schmidt, W.F. Compositions and films comprised of avian feather keratin. U.S. Patent 7,066,995. June 27, 2006.
  3. Klun, J.A. and Schmidt, W.F. Methods and compositions for repelling arthropods US Patent No: 6,562,841, 2003.
  4. Gassner, G., Schmidt, W.F., Line, M.J., Waters, R.M. and Thomas, C.G. Fiber and Fiber Products Produced from Feathers. European Patent No. EP0832316, August, 2002.
  5. Gassner, G., Schmidt, W.F., Line, M.J., Waters, R.M. and Thomas, C.G. Fiber and Fiber Products Produced from Feathers. U.S. Patent No. 5,750,030. 1998.



  1. Schmidt, W. F., Hapeman, C. J., McConnell, L. L., Rice, C. P., Broadhurst, C. L., Nguyen, J. K., Qin, J., Chao, K., Kim, M. S., Shelton, D. R. (2017). Using torsional forces to explain the gradient temperature Raman spectra of endosulfan isomers and its irreversible isomerization. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1130, 1-35.
  2. Broadhurst, C. L., Schmidt, W. F., Nguyen, J. K., Qin, J., Chao, K., Aubuchon, S. R., & Kim, M. S. (2016). Continuous gradient temperature raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry of N-3DPA and DHA from -100 to 10°C. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, (2017), 94-104.


  1. Broadhurst, C. L., Schmidt, W. F., Kim, M.S., Nguyen, J.K., Qin, J, Chao, K., Shelton, D.R., Bauchan, G. L. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 2:6n-3) from -110 to 20° C.Chemistry and Physics of Lipids,200,1-10.
  2. Broadhurst, C. L., Schmidt, W. F., Kim, M.S., Nguyen, J.K., Qin, J, Chao, K., Bauchan, G. L, Shelton, D.R. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of Oleic Acid and Linoleic Acids from- 100 to 50°C. Lipids, (2016), 1-14.
  3. Broadhurst, C. L., Schmidt, W. F., Kim, M.S., Nguyen, J.K., Qin, J, Chao, K., Shelton, D.R., Bauchan, G. L, Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 2:6n-3) from -110 to 20° C. Proc. SPIE 9864, Sensing for Agriculture and Food Quality and Safety VIII, 98640E (May 17, 2016); doi:10.1117/12.2225687.
  4. Nguyen, J. K., Heighton, L., Xu, Y., Nou, X., Schmidt, W. F. (2016). “Detecting Contaminating Microorganism in Human Food and Water from Raman Mapping through Biofilms ”. Poster Session 2016. Beltsville, Maryland, USA.
  5. Nguyen, J. K., Heighton, L., Xu, Y., Nou, X., Schmidt, W. F.,. (2016). Raman Mapping of intact biofilms on stainless steel slides. Proceedings of SPIE, 9864, 9864R-1-9864R-7. https://doi:10.1117/12.2229808


  1. Chao, K., Dhakal, S., Qin, J., Kim, M.S., Peng, Yankun, Y., Schmidt, W.F. 2015. Depth of penetration of a 785nm laser for Raman spectral measurement in food powders. Proceedings of SPIE 9488, Sensing for Agriculture and Food Quality and Safety VII, 94880U doi:10.1117/12.2177000
  2. Nguyen, J. K., Schmidt, W. F., Broadhurst, C. L., Chao, K., Qin, J., Kim, M.S. (2015). Parallelism between Gradient Temperature Raman Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry results. Poster Session 2015. Beltsville, Maryland, USA.
  3. Schmidt, W. F., Kim, M. S., Nguyen, J. K., Qin, J., Chao, K., Broadhurst, C. L., & Shelton, D. R. (2015). Continuous gradient temperature Raman Spectroscopy identifies flexible sites in proline and alanine peptides. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 80, 59-65.
  4. Schmidt, W. F., Broadhurst, C. L., Qin, J., Lee, H., Nguyen, J. K., Chao, K., . . . Kim, M. S. (2015). Continuous temperature-dependent raman spectroscopy of Melamine and structural analog detection in milk powder. Applied Spectroscopy, 69(3), 398-406.


  1. Potter, T.L., Hapeman, C.J., Mcconnell, L.L., Harman-Fetcho, J.A.,Schmidt, W.F., Rice, C., Schaffer, B. 2014. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida (USA). Science of the Total Environment. 468-69, 505-513.


  1. Huda, M.S., Schmidt, W.F., Misra, M., and Drzal, L. Effect of fiber surface treatment of poultry feather fibers on the properties of their polymer matrix composites.J. Appl. Pol. Sci.128:1117-1124, 2013. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1002/app.38306
  2. Crawford, M.A., Broadhurst, C.L., Guest, M., Nagar, A., Wang, Y., Ghebremeskel, K., and Schmidt, W.F. A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signaling throughout evolution.Prostaglandins, Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids, 88:5-13, 2013. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  3. Hapeman, C.J., McConnell, L.L., Potter, T.I., Harman-Fetcho, J., Schmidt, W.F., Rice, C.P., Schaffer, B.A., and Curry, R. Endosulfan in the atmosphere of South Florida: Transport to Everglades and Biscayne National Parks.Atmospheric Environment.66:131-140, 2013. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  4. Huang, Q., McConnell, L.L., Razote, E., Schmidt, W.F., Vinyard, B.T., Torrents, A., Hapeman, C.J., Maghirang, R., Trabue, S.L., Prueger, J. and Ro, K.S. Utilizing single particle Raman microscopy as a non-destructive method to identify sources of PM10 from cattle feedlot operations. Atmospheric Environment. 66:17-24, 2013. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)


  1. Heighton, L.P., Zimmerman, M., Rice, C.P., Codling, E.E., Tossell, J.A. and Schmidt, W.F. Quantification of Inositol Hexa-Kis Phosphate in Environmental Samples.Open Journal of Soil Science. 2:55-63, 2012. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  2. Schmidt, W.F., Thomas, C.G. More precise model of a-helix and transmembrane a-helical peptide backbone structure.J. Biophysical Chemistry. 3:295-303, 2012. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.4236/jbpc.2012
  3. Elsasser, T.H., Kahl, S., Capuco, A.V., and Schmidt, W.F. Effects of stress on endocrine and metabolic processes and redirection: cross talk between subcellular compartments.Domestic Animal Endocrinology. 43:132-45, 2012. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  4. Schmidt, W.F., Mookherji, S., Mitchell, A.D., Crawford, M.A. "Lipid Composition in Miscible and Immiscible Phases," Innocenti, A. (ed.), Stoichiometry and Research- The Importance of Quantity in Biomedicine, In-Tech Publishers, Florence, Italy. 2012. (Peer-reviewed book chapter) doi: 10.5772/32955


  1. Ahn, H. K., Huda, M.S., Smith, M.C., Mulbry, W.W., Schmidt, W.F., and Reeves, J.B. III. Biodegradability of Injection Molded Bioplastics Containing Polylactic acid and Poultry Feather Fiber. Bioresource Technology, 102: 4930-4933, 2011. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  2. Zeinali, M., McConnell, L.L., Hapeman, C.J., Nguyen, A., Schmidt, W.F., and Howard, C.J. Volatile Organic Compounds in Pesticide Formulations: Methods To Estimate Ozone Formation Potential. Atmospheric Environment 45: 2404-2412, 2011. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)

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  1. Heighton, L., Schmidt, W.F., Rice, C.P., and Siefert R.L. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy Shows Speciation of Phytate to be pH Dependent. J. Agr. Food Chem. and Environ. 6:402-407, 2008. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  2. Heighton, L., Schmidt, W.F., and Siefert, R.L. "Kinetic and Equilibrium Constants of Phytic Acid, Ferric and Ferrous Phytate derived from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. J. Ag. Food Chem. 56:9543-7, 2008. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  3. Crawford, M.A., Broadhurst, C.L., Galli, C., Ghebremeskel, K., Holmsen, H., Saugstad, L.F., Schmidt, W.F., Sinclair, A.J., and Cunnane, S.C., The Role of Docosahexaenoic and Arachidonic Acid as Determinants of Evolution and Hominid Brain Development, Fisheries for Global Welfare and the Environment, 5th World Fisheries Congress, 2008. pp. 57-76. (Peer-reviewed Book Chapter)


  1. Barone, J.R., Dangaran, K.L. and Schmidt, W.F. Protein-Transition Metal Ion Networks.J. Appl. Polym. Sci.106:1518-1525, 2007. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) Doi: 10.1002/app.26654
  2. Winandy, J.E., Muell, J.H., Micales, J.A., and Schmidt, W.F. Chicken Feather Fiber as an Additive in MDF Composites.Journal of Natural Fibers. 4: 1-26, 2007. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1300/J395v04n01_04
  3. Baker, C.J., Mock, N.M., Roberts, D.P., Deahl, K.L., Hapeman, C. J.,Schmidt, W.F., and Kochansky, J. Interference by MES [2-(4-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid] and related buffers in phenolic oxidation by peroxidase.Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 43:1322-1327, 2007. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  4. Elsasser, T.H., Li, C.-J., Caperna, T.J., Kahl, S., and Schmidt, W.F. Growth Hormone (GH)-Associated Nitration of Janus Kinase-2 at the 1007Y-1008Y Epitope Impedes Phosphorylation at This Site: Mechanism for and Impact of a GH, AKT, and Nitric Oxide Synthase Axis on GH Signal Transduction. Endocrinology. 148: 3792-3802, 2007. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.4236/jbpc.2012.34036


  1. Barone, J.R., Schmidt, W.F., and Gregoire, N.T. Extrusion of Feather Keratin.Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 100:1432-1442. 2006. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1002/app.23501
  2. Schmidt, W.F., Barone, J.R., Francis, B., and Reeves, J.B. III. Stearic Acid Solubility and Cubic Phase Volume.Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 142:23-32, 2006. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  3. Barone, J.R. and Schmidt, W.F. Effects of Formic Acid Exposure on Keratin Fiber derived from Poultry Feather Biomass. Bioresource Technology. 97:233-242, 2006. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  4. Barone, J.R. and Schmidt, W.F. Non-Food Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials.Journal of Chemical Education. 83:1003-1007. 2006. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1021/ed083p1003
  5. Wright, S.E., Nichols, K.A., and Schmidt, W.F. Comparison of Efficacy of Three Extractants to Solubilize Glomalin on Hyphae and in Soil. Chemosphere. 64:1219-1224, 2006. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)


  1. Jayasundera, S., Schmidt, W. F., Reeves, J.B. III, and Dao, T. H. Direct 31P NMR Spectroscopic Measurement of Phosphorous Forms in Dairy Manures.J. Food Agric. and the Environ. 3:335-340. 2005. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  2. Barone, J.R., Schmidt, W.F., Liebner, C.F.E. Thermally processed keratin films.Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 97:1644-1651. 2005. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  3. Barone, J.R., Schmidt, W.F. Polyethylene reinforced with keratin fibers obtained from chicken feathers.Composites Science and Technology, 65:173?181. 2005. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  4. Barone, J.R.,Schmidt, W.F., Liebner, C.F.E. Compounding and molding of polyethylene composites reinforced with keratin feather fiber.Composites Science and Technology, 65:683-692. 2005. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  5. Natarajan, R., Basak, S.C., Balaban, A., Klun, J.A., and Schmidt, W.F. Chirality index, molecular overlay and biological activity of diastereoisomeric mosquito repellants, Pest Management Science, 61:1193-1201. 2005. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)


  1. Anderson, R.A., Broadhurst, C.L., Polansky, M.M.,Schmidt, W.F., Khan, A., Flanagan, V.P., Schoene, N.W., and Graves D.J. Isolation and Characterization of Polyphenol Type-A Polymers From Cinnamon With Insulin-like Biological Activity.J. Ag. Food Chem. 52:65-70. 2004. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1021/jf034916b
  2. Broadhurst, C.L.,Schmidt, W.F., Crawford, M. A., Wang, Y. and Li, R. 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Natural Undiluted Lipids: Docosahexaenoic?Rich Phospholipid and Triacylglycerol from Fish,J. Ag. Food Chem., 52:4250-4255. 2004. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1021/jf0353178
  3. Robbins, R.J., Schmidt, W.F. Optimized synthesis of four isotopically labeled (13C-enriched) phenolic acids via a malonic acid condensation.J. Label. Compds. Radiopharm., 47:797-806. 2004. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1002/jlcr.869
  4. Johnson, E.L. and Schmidt, W.F. Flavonoids as Chemotaxonomic Markers for Erythroxylum australe Z. Naturforsch. 59c:769-776. 2004. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)

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  1. Schmidt, W.F. and Jayasundera, S. "Microcrystalline Keratin Fiber," Wallenberger, F and Weston, N. (eds.) in Natural Fibers Plastics and Composites ?Recent Advances, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA. 2003. (Peer-reviewed book chapter)
  2. Jayasundera, S.,Schmidt, W.F. , Hapeman C.J. and Torrents A. Examination of molecular interaction sites of acetanilides with organic matter surrogates using NMR techniques,J. Ag. Food Chem. 51:3829-3835. 2003. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1021/jf021226j
  3. Hapeman, C.J., McConnell, L.L., Rice, C., Sadeghi, A.M.,Schmidt, W.F., McCarty, G.W., Starr, J.L., Rice, P.J., Angier, J., and Harman-Fetcho, J. Understanding Agrochemical Fate and Transport to Prevent and Mitigate Adverse Environmental Impacts,Pest Manag. Sci., 59:681-690. 2003. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1002/ps.720
  4. Li, R., Schmidt, W.F. , Rankin, S., Walzem, R.L., Boyle-Roden, E., Solubilization of Acylglycerol in Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles.J. Ag. Food Chem.51:477-482. 2003. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi: 10.1021/jf025676n
  5. Johnson, E.L., Schmidt, W.F. , Emche, S.D. , Mossoba, M.M., and Musser, S.M. Kaempferol Gluco-Rhamnoside, A new Flavonol fromErythroxylum coca. var.ipadu.Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 31:59-67. 2003. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  6. Khrimian, A., Margaryan, A.K.,Schmidt, W.F. An Improved Synthesis of Ethyl cis-5-Iodo-trans-2-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate, a Potent Attractant for the Mediterranean Fruit Fly. Tetrahedron Journal. 59:5475-5480. 2003. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)


  1. Schmidt, W.F.Microcrystalline Keratin: From Feathers to Composite Products.Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 702(U1.5):1-8. 2002. (Peer-reviewed extended proceedings) doi:10.1557/PROC-702-U1.5.1
  2. Johnson, E.L.,Schmidt, W.F. and Cooper, D. Flavonoids as chemotaxonomic markers for cultivated Amazon cocaErythroxylum ipadu.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 40:89-95. 2002. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  3. Broadhurst, C. L., Wang, Y., Crawford, M.A., Cunnane, S.C., Parkington, J.E., and Schmidt, W.F. Brain-specific lipids from marine, lacustrine, or terrestrial food resources: potential impact of early AfricanHomo sapiens.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B 131:653-673. 2002. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  4. Nitao, J.K., Meyer, S.L.F., Oliver, J.E.,Schmidt, W.F. and Chitwood, D.J. Isolation of Flavipin, A Fungus Compound Antagonist to Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Nematology. 4:55-63. 2002. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1163/156854102760082203


  1. Schmidt, W.F., Bilboulian, S., Rice, C.P., McConnell, L.L., Fettinger, J.C., Hapeman, C.J., Thermodynamic, Spectroscopic, and Computational Evidence for the Irreversible Conversion of ?? to ?-Endosulfan,J. Ag. Food Chem. 49:5372-5376. 2001. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1021/jf0102214
  2. Klun, J.A., Schmidt, W.F. and Debboun, M. Stereochemical Effects in an Insect Repellent.J. Med. Entomology, 38:809-812. 2001. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1603/0022-2585-38.6.809
  3. Whitaker, B.D.,Schmidt, W.F., Kirk, M.C. and Barnes, S. Novel Fatty Acid Esters of p-Coumaryl Alcohol in Epicuticular Wax of Apple Fruit.J. Ag. Food Chem. 49: 4450-4456. 2001. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1021/jf010409n
  4. Rillig, M.C., Wright, S.F., Nichols, K. A.,Schmidt, W.F. and Torn, M.S. Large contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to soil carbon pools in tropical forest soils.Plant and Soil, 233:167-177. 2001. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1023/A:1010364221169
  5. Nitao, J.K., Meyer, S.L.F.,Schmidt, W.F., Fettinger, J.C. and Chitwood, D.J. Nematode-Antagonistic Trichothecenes from Fusarium Equiseti. J. Chem. Ecol. 27:859-869. 2001. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1023/A:1010390200571


  1. Jayasundera, S.,Schmidt, W.F., Hapeman, C.J. and Torrents, A. What's known and what's yet to be known with respect to the sorption of organic pollutants onto soils.Int. J. Environ. Pollu. 16:147-156. 2000. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  2. Jayasundera, S.,Schmidt, W.F., Hapeman, C.J. and Torrents, A. Rebuttal on Influence of the Chemical Environment on Metolochlor Conformations.J Ag. Food Chem.48:4450-4451. 2000. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1021/jf000835t
  3. Nitao, J.K., Meyer, S.L.F.,Schmidt, W.F., Fettinger, J.C., Chitwood, D.J. Nematode-antagonistic trichothecene compounds from Fusarium equiseti. Phytopathology. 90: p. S56 2000. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1023/A:1010390200571


  1. Schmidt, W.F.Innovative Feather Utilization Strategies.Proc. National Poultry Waste Management Symposium, Springdale, AR, p. 276-282. 1998. (Extended conference proceedings)
  2. Schmidt, W.F.and Gassner, G. Chirality and Computational Chemistry: A New Direction,Current Medicinal Chemistry. 1:502-510. 1995. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  3. Schmidt, W.F., Hapeman, C.J., Fettinger, J.C., Rice, C.P., Bilboulian, S. Structure and Asymmetry in the Isomeric Conversion of ?- to ?- Endosulfan.J. Agric. Food Chem.45:1023-1026. 1997. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1021/jf970020t
  4. Schmidt, W.F., Hapeman, C.J., Waters, R.M. and Johnson, W.E. NMR and Molecular Mechanics of Alachlor Conformation and Conformers: Implications to the Mechanism of Environmental Photodegradation.J. Agric. Food Chem., 43:1724-1929. 1995. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1021/jf00054a059
  5. Jayasundera, S., Schmidt, W.F., Hapeman, C.J. and Torrents, A. Influence of the Chemical Environment on Metolochlor Conformations.J. Agr. Food Chem.47:4435-4442. 1999. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1021/jf990090v
  6. Schmidt, W.F.Importance of Chemical Structure and Conformation in the Physical Properties and Environmental Fate of Pesticides.Recent Res. Dev. Agricultural & Food Chem.3:109-116. 1999. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  7. Torrents, A., Jayasundera, S. andSchmidt, W.F. The Influence of the Polarity of Organic Matter on the Sorption of Acetamide Pesticides.J. Ag. Food Chem.45:3320-3325. 1997. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1021/jf970112i
  8. Jayasundera, S.,Schmidt, W.F. and Torrents, A. Comment: Noncovalent interactions between acenaphthenone and dissolved fulvic acid as determined by 13C NMR T1 relaxation measurements.Environ. Sci. Techn.3:3742-3743. 1997. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  9. Warthen, J.D. Jr.,Schmidt, W.F., Doolittle, R.E. and Cunningham, R.T. Structure-Activity Observations ofTRANS-Trimedlure Enantiomers.J. Chem. Ecol. 21:69-79. 1995. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  10. Broadhurst, C.L., Schmidt, W.F., Reeves, J.B. III, Polansky, M. M., Gautschi, K. and Anderson, R.A. Characterization and Structure by NMR and FTIR Spectroscopy, and Molecular Modeling of Chromium(III) Picolinate and Nicotinate Complexes Utilized for Nutritional Supplementation.J. Inorgan. Biochem.66:119-130. 1997. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  11. Johnson, E.L.,Schmidt, W.F. and Norman, H.A. Leaf Flavonoids as Chemotaxonomic Markers for TwoErythroxylum Taxa. Z.Natureforsch.55c:577-585. 1997. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  12. Johnson, E.L.,Schmidt, W.F. and Norman, H.A. Flavonoids Markers forErythroxylum Taxa,E.coca.var.ipadu andE. novogranatense var.truxillense.Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 26:743-759. 1998. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  13. Johnson, E.L. andSchmidt, W.F. Flavonoids as Chemotaxonomic Markers forErythroxylum ulei.Z. Naturforsch.54c:881-888. 1999. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  14. Oliver, J.E. and Schmidt, W.F. Chiral 3-(hydroxymethyl) oxiranecarboxylic acids via the Jocic reaction.Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 9:1723-1728. 1998. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  15. DeMilo, A.B., Lee, C.J., Schroder, R.F.,Schmidt, W.F. and Harrison, D.J. Spectral Characterization of Cucurbitacins in a Bitter Mutant of Hawkesbury Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad) that Elicit a Feeding Response to Diaborticite Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 33:343-354. 1998. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)


  1. Schmidt, W.F., Waters, R.M., Mitchell, A.D., Warthen, J.D.Jr., Honigberg, I.L., and Van Halbeek, H. Association of ?-agonists with corresponding ? 2- and ?1-adrenergic pentapeptide sequences.Int. J. Peptide Protein Res.41:467-475. 1993. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  2. Schmidt, W.F., Honigberg, I.L. NMR Spectroscopic Investigation of Interaction Energies of Ephedrine Stereoisomers in Non-crystalline Solids and its Correlation with Thermodynamic Data.Pharm. Res. 8:1128-1136. 1991. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1023/A:1015898217143
  3. Schmidt, W.F., Mitchell, A.D., Line, M.J. and Reeves, J.B. III. 13C CP/MAS of LDLL-mixtures of amino acids.Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 2:11-20. 1993. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1016/0926-2040(93)90059-V
  4. Schmidt, W.F., Reeves, J.B. III and Mitchell, A.D. Vibrational Spectroscopy of LDLL- mixtures of amino acids.J. Vib. Spectrosc. 6:293-299. 1994. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)
  5. Reeves, J.B. III, and Schmidt, W.F. Solid State 13C NMR Analysis of Forage and Byproduct-Derived Fiber and Lignin Residues.J. Agric. Food Chem. 42:1462-1468. 1994. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1021/jf00043a014
  6. Warthen, J.D. Jr.,Schmidt, W.F., Cunningham, R.T., DeMilo, A.B. and Fritz, G.L. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) of Trimedlure isomers.J. Chem. Ecol. 19:1323-1335. 1993. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.1007/BF00984879
  7. Mitchell, A.D., Wang, P.C., Rosebrough, R.W., Elsasser, T.H. and Schmidt, W.F. Assessment of Body Composition of Poultry by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy.J. Poul. Sci. 70:2494-2500. 1991. (Peer-reviewed manuscript) doi:10.3382/ps.0702494
  8. Mitchell, A.D., Wang, P.C., Elsasser, T.H.,Schmidt, W.F. Application of NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging for Body Composition Analysis as Related to Sequential Measurement of Energy Deposition. Wenk, C. and Boessinger, M., editors.Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals. p. 222-225. 1991. (referred book chapter)
  9. Mitchell, A.D., Wang, P.C., Song, H.F. and Schmidt, W.F. Body Composition Analysis of the Pig by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ellis, K.J., Eastman, J.D., editors.Human Body Composition. Plenum Press, NY. p. 105-108. 1993. (referred book chapter)
  10. Schmidt, W.F.,.Waters, R.M, Mitchell, A.D. NMR Evaluation of Beta-adrenergic Receptor Peptide Binding with Ractopamine. J. Anim. Sci. 69:332. 1991. (Peer-reviewed manuscript)

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