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Talmeida, R., De Bortoli Teixeira, D., Montanari, R., Bolonhezi, A., Teixeira, E., Moitinho, M., Panosso, A., Spokas, K., La Scala Junior, N. 2018. Ratio of CO2 and O2 as index for categorizing soil biological activity in sugarcane areas under contrasting straw management regimes. Soil Research. 56(4):373-381. [PDF]

  Tavares, R., Spokas, K.A., Hall, K., Colosky, E., De Souza, Z., La Scala, N. 2018. Sugarcane residue management impact soil geenhouse gas. Ciencia e Agrotecnologia. 42(2):195-203. [PDF]

  Novak, J.M, Ippolito, J.A., Ducey, T.F., Watts, D.W., Spokas, K.A., Trippe, K.M., Sigua, G.C., Johnson, M.G. 2018. Remediation of an acidic mine spoil: Miscanthus biochar and lime amendment affects meal availability, plant growth and soil enzymatic activity. Chemosphere. 205:709-718. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.04.107. [PDF]

  Joseph, S., Kammann, C.I., Shepard, J.G., Conte, P., Schmidt, H., Hagemann, N., Rich, A.M., Marjo, C.H., Allen, J., Munroe, P., Mitchell, D.R., Donne, S., Spokas, K.A., Graber, E.R. 2018. Microstructural and associated chemical changes during the composting of a high temperature biochar: Mechanisms for nitrate, phosphate and other nutrient retention and release. Science of the Total Environment. 618:1210-1223. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.20. [PDF]

  Hagerman, N., Spokas, K.A., Schmidt, H., Kagi, R., Bohler, M., Bucheli, T. 2018. Activated carbon, biochar and charcoal: Linkages and synergies across pyrogenic carbon's ABC. Water. 10(2):182. doi:10.3390/w10020182. [PDF]

  Georgiy, V.V., Spokas, K.A., Molde, J.S., Heilmann, S.M., Wood, B.M, Valentas, K.J. 2018. Impact of two hydrothermal carbonization filtrates on soil greenhouse production. Journal of Horticultural Science and Research. 2(1):48-61. [PDF

  Novak, J., Ippolito, J., Ducey, T., Watts, D., Spokas, K.A., Trippe, K., Sigua, G., Johnson, M. 2018. Remediation of an acidic mine spoil: Miscanthus biochar and lime amendment affects metal availability, plant growth and soil enzymatic activity. Chemosphere. 205:709-718. [PDF]



  Mendes, K.F., Hall, K.E., Spokas, K.A., Koskinen, W.C., Tornisielo, V.L. 2017. Evaluating agricultural management effects on alachlor availability: Tillage, green manure, and biochar. Agronomy. 7(4):64. doi:10.3390/agronomy7040064. [PDF]

  Bicalho, E.S., Moitinho, M.R., Teixeira, D.B., Panosso, A.R., Spokas, K.A., La Scala Jr, N. 2017. Soil greenhouse gas production: Relations to soil attributes in a sugarcane production area, southern Brazil. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 81(5):1168-1178. doi:10.2136/sssaj2016.12.0422. [PDF]

  Mehmood, K., Chavez Garcia, E., Schirrmann, M., Ladd, B., Kammann, C., Wrage-Monnig, N., Siebe, C., Estavillo, J.M., Fuertes-Mendizabal, T., Cayuela, M., Sigua, G.C., Spokas, K.A., Cowie, A.L., Novak, J.M., Ippolito, J.A., Borchard, N. 2017. Biochar research activities and their relation to socio-economic development and environmental qualityAgronomy for Sustainable Development. doi:10.1007/s13593-017-0430-1. [PDF]

  Cambaliza, M.O.L., Bogner, J.E., Green, R.B., Shepson, P.B., Harvey, T.A., Spokas, K.A, Stirm, B.H., Corcoran, M.. 2017. Field measurements and modeling to resolve m2 to km2 CH4 emissions for a complex urban source: An Indiana landfill study. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 5:36. [PDF]

  Kammann, C., Ippolito, J., Hagemann, N., Borchard, N., Cayuela, M., Estavillo, J., Fuertes-Mendizabal, T., Jeffery, S., Kern, J., Novak, J.M., Rasse, D., Saarnio, S., Schmidt, H., Spokas, K.A., Wrage-Monnig, N. 2017. Biochar as a tool to reduce the agricultural greenhouse-gas burden-knowns, unknowns, and future research needs. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management. 25(02):114-139. [PDF]

  Gamiz, B., Velardea, P., Spokas, K.A., Hermosin, M., Cox, L. 2017. Biochar soil additions impacts herbicide fate: Importance of application timing and feedstock species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65(15):3109-3117. [PDF]

  Hall, K., Spokas, K.A., Gamizn, B., Cox, L., Papiernik, S.K., Koskinen, W.C. 2017. Glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochars – Interactions of physical and chemical processes. Pest Management Science. Available: [PDF]

  Gamiz, B., Cox, L., Hermosin, M., Spokas, K.A., Celis, R. 2017. Assessing the effect of organoclays and biochar on the fate of abscisic acid in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65(1):29-38. [PDF]

  Williams, A., Davis, A.S., Jilling, A., Grandy, A., Koide, R.T., Smith, R.G., Snapp, S.S., Spokas, K.A., Yannarell, A.C., Jordan, N.R. 2017. Reconciling opposing soil processes in row-crop agroecosystems via soil functional zone management. Journal of Applied Ecology. 236:99-107. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Marques, J., La Scala, N., Nater, E. 2017. Black Earths (Terra Preta): Observations of wider occurrence from natural fire. Encyclopedia of Soil Science. 3:2312–2315. Available: [PDF]



  Trigo, C., Cox, L., Spokas, K.A. 2016. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and hardwood species on resulting biochar properties and their effect on azimsulfuron sorption as compared to other sorbents. Science of the Total Environment. 566-567:1454-1464. [PDF]

  Williams, A., Davis, A.S., Ewing, P., Grandy, A., Kane, D., Koide, R.T., Mortensen, D.A., Smith, R.G., Snapp, S., Spokas, K.A. 2016. Precision control of soil nitrogen cycling via soil functional zone management. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 231:291-295. [PDF]

  Williams, A., Davis, A.S., Ewing, P., Forcella, F., Grandy, S., Kane, D., Koide, R.T., Mortensen, D., Smith, R., Spokas, K.A., Jordan, N.R. 2016. A comparison of soil hydrothermal properties in zonal and uniform tillage systems across the US corn belt. Geoderma. 273:12-19. [PDF]

  Novak, J.M., Ippolito, J.A., Lentz, R.D., Spokas, K.A., Bolster, C.H., Sistani, K.R., Trippe, K.M., Phillips, C.L., Johnson, M.G. 2016. Soil health, crop productivity, microbial transport, and mine spoil response to biochars. BioEnergy Research. 9(2):454-464. [PDF]

  Trigo, C., Spokas, K.A., Hall, K.E., Cox, L., Koskinen, W.C. 2016. Metolachlor sorption and degradation in soil amended with fresh and aged biochars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 64(16):3141-3149. [PDF]

  Wang, Q., Gao, S., Wang, D., Spokas, K.A., Cao, A., Yan, D. 2016. Mechanisms for 1,3-dichloropropene dissipation in biochar-amended soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 64(12):2531-2540. [PDF]

  Lim, T., Spokas, K.A., Feyereisen, G.W., Novak, J.M. 2016. Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties. Chemosphere. 142:136-144. [PDF]

  Novak, J.M., Sigua, G.C., Watts, D.W., Cantrell, K., Shumaker, P.D., Szogi, A.A., Johnson, M., Spokas, K.A. 2016. Biochars impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer. Chemosphere. 142:160-167. [PDF]

  Sigua, G.C., Novak, J.M., Watts, D.W., Johnson, M.G., Spokas, K.A. 2016. Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer. Chemosphere. 142:176-183. [PDF]

  Ro, K.S., Novak, J.M., Johnson, M., Szogi, A.A., Libra, J., Spokas, K.A., Bae, S. 2016. Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments. Chemosphere. 142:92-99. [PDF]

  Williams, A., Kane, D., Ewing, P., Atwood, L., Jilling, A., Li, M., Lou, Y., Davis, A.S., Grandy, A., Koide, R.T., Spokas, K.A., et. al, 2016. Soil functional zone management: A vehicle for enhancing production and soil ecosystem services in row-crop agroecosystems. Frontiers in Plant Science. 7:65. [PDF]

  Novak, J.M., Ro, K.S., Ok, Y.S., Sigua, G.C., Spokas, K.A., Uchimiva, S.M., Bolan, N. 2016. Biochars multifunctional role as a novel technology in the agricultural, environmental, and industrial sectors. Chemosphere. 142:1-3. [PDF]

  Laird, D.A., Novak, J.M., Collins, H.P., Ippolito, J.A., Karlen, D.L., Lentz, R.D., Sistani, K.R., Spokas, K.A., Van Pelt, R.S. 2016. Multi-year and multi-location soil quality and crop biomass yield responses to hardwood fast pyrolysis biochar. Geoderma. 289: 46-53. [PDF]

  Small, G.E., Brovold, S.A., Bullerjahn, G.S., Finlay, J.C., McKay, R.M., Rozmarynowycz, M.J., Spokas, K.A., Sterner, R.W. 2016. Large differences in potential denitrification and sediment microbial communities across the Laurentian great lakes. Biogeochemistry. 128(3):353-368.  [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Watts, D.W., Lee, T., Weis, R.D., Novak, J.M., Feyereisen, G.W., Ippolito, J.A. 2016. Biomass or biochar – Which is better at improving hydraulic properties? Acta Horticulturae. 1146:235-242. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1146.31. [PDF]

  Xie, T., Sadasivam, B., Reddy, K.R., Wang, C., Spokas, K.A. 2015. Review of the effects of biochar amendment on soil properties and carbon sequestration. Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000293. [PDF]



  Spokas, K.A., Bogner, J., Corcoran, M., Walker, S. 2015. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 3:51. [PDF]

  Hall, K.E., Ray, C., Ki, S., Spokas, K.A., Koskinen, W.C. 2015. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils. Journal of Environmental Management. 159:227-234. [PDF]

  Garcia-Jaramillo, M., Cox, L., Knicker, H., Cornejo, J., Spokas, K.A., del Carmen-Hermosin, M. 2015.  Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 286:581-588. [PDF]

  Yargicoglu, E.N., Sadasivan, B., Reddy, K.R., Spokas, K.A., 2015. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars. Waste Management. 36:256-268. [PDF]

  Thomazini, A., Spokas K.A., Hall, K.E., Ippolito, J.A., Lentz, R.D., Novak, J.M. 2015. GHG impacts of biochar: Predictability for the same biochar. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 207:183-191. [PDF]

  Thomazini, A., De Sa Mendonca, E., De Bortoli Teixeixa, D., Carreiro Almeida, C., La Scala, N., Spokas, K.A., Pasqualoto Canellas, L., Millori, D. 2015. CO2 and N2O emissions in a soil chronosequence at a glacier retreat zone in Maritime Antarctica. Science of the Total Environment. 521-522:336-345. [PDF]

  Cambaliza, M., Shepson, P.B., Bogner, J., Caulton, D.R., Stirm, R., Sweeney, C., Montzka, S.A., Turnbill, J., Spokas, K.A., Salmon, O.E., Lavoie, T.N., Hendricks, A., Mays, K., Turnbull, J., Miller, B.R., Lauvanux, T., Davis, K., Karion, A., Moser, B., Miller, C., Obermeyer, C., Whetstone, J., Prasad, K.R., Miles, N., Richardson, S. 2015. Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 3:000037. [PDF]

  Novak, J.M., Sigua, G.C., Spokas, K.A., Hunt, P.G., Glaz, B.S., Watts, D.W., Cantrell, K.B., Busscher, W.J. 2015. Plant macro- and micronutrient dynamics in a biochar-amended wetland muck. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 226:2228. [PDF]

  Chintala, R., Owen, R.K., Schumacher, T. E., Spokas, K.A., McDonald, L.M., Kumar, S., Clay, D.E., Malo, D.D., Bleakley, B. 2015. Denitrification kinetics in biomass and biochar amended soils of different landscape positions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 22:5152-5163. [PDF]

  Vozhdayev, G.V., Spokas, K.A., Molde, J.S., Heilmann, S.M., Wood, B.M., Valentas, K.J. 2015. Response of maize germination and growth to HTC filtrate type and concentration. Plant and Soil. 396(1-2):127-136. [PDF]



  Trigo, C., Spokas, K.A., Cox, L., Koskinen, W.C. 2014. Influence of soil biochar aging on sorption of the herbicides MCPA, nicosulfuron, terbuthylazine, indaziflam, and fluoroethyldiaminotriazine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(45):10855-10860. [PDF]

  Lin, X., Spokas, K.A., Venterea, R.T., Zhang, R., Baker, J.M., Feyereisen, G.W. 2014. Assessing microbial contributions to N2O impacts following biochar additions. Agronomy. 4(4):478-496. [PDF]

  Heilmann, S.M., Molde, J.S., Timler, J.G., Wood, B.M., Mikula, A.L., Vozhdayev, G.V., Spokas, K.A., Colosky, E., Valentas, K.J. 2014. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 48(17):10323-10329. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Novak, J.M., Masiello, C.A., Johnson, M., Colosky, E., Ippolito, J.A., Trigo, C. 2014. Physical disintegration of biochar: An overlooked process. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 1(8):326-332. [PDF]

  Lentz, R.D., Ippolito, J.A., Spokas, K.A. 2014. Biochar and manure effects on net nitrogen mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions from calcareous soil under corn. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 78:1641-1655. [PDF]

  Xie, T., Reddy, K.R., Wang, C., Yargicoglu, E., Spokas, K.A., 2014. Characteristics and applications of biochar for enviroronmental remediation: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science Technology. 45(9):939-969. [PDF]

  Novak, J.M., Spokas, K.A., Cantrell, K.B., Ro, K.S., Watts, D.W., Glaz, B.S., Hunt, P.G., Busscher, W.J. 2014. Effects of biochars and hydrochars produced from lignocellulosic and animal manure on fertility of a Mollisol and Entisol. Soil Use and Management. 30:175-181. [PDF]

  Hall, K.E., Calderon, M.J., Spokas, K.A., Cox, L., Koskinen, W.C., Novak, J.M., Cantrell, K.B. 2014. Phenolic acid sorption to biochars from mixtures of feedstock materials. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 225:1-9. [PDF]

  Borchard, N., Spokas, K.A., Prost, K., Siemens, J. 2014. Greenhouse gas production in mixtures of soil with composted and noncomposted biochars is governed by char-associated organic compounds. Journal of Environmental Quality. 43:971-979. [PDF]

  Rittenhouse, J.L., Rice, P.J., Spokas, K.A., Koskinen, W.C. 2014. Assessing biochar's ability to reduce bioavailability of aminocyclopyrachlor in soils. Environmental Pollution. 189:92-97. [PDF]

  Weyers, S.L., Spokas< K.A. 2014. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots. Solid Earth. 5:499-507. [PDF]

  Smith, R.G., Davis, A.S., Koide, R., Mortensen, D., Grandy, S., Hunter, M., Daly, A., Atwood, L., Jordan, N., Spokas, K.A., Yannarell, A. 2014. Structural equation modeling facilitates transdisciplinary research on agriculture and climate change. Crop Science. 54:475-483. [PDF]

  Li, Y., Cheng, R., Spokas, K.A., Palmer, A., Borevitz, J. 2014. Genetic variation for life history sensitivity to seasonal warming in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 196:569-577. [PDF]

  Cabrera, A., Cox, L., Spokas, K.A., Hermosin, M.C., Cornejo, J., Koskinen, W.C. 2014. Influence of biochar amendments on the sorption-desorption of aminocyclopyrachlor, bentazone and pyraclostrobin pesticides to an agricultural soil. Science of the Total Environment. 470-471:438-443. [PDF]


2011 - 2013

  Fabbri, D., Rombola, A.G., Torri, C., Spokas, K.A. 2013. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar and biochar amended soil. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis. 103:60-67. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A. 2012. Impact of biochar field aging on laboratory greenhouse gas production potentials. Global Change Biology Bioenergy. 5:165-176. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Cantrell, K.B., Novak, J.M., Archer, D.W., Ippolito, J.A., Collins, H.P., Boateng, A.A., Lima, I.M., Lamb, M.C., Mcaloon, A.J., Lentz, R.D., Nichols, K.A. 2012. Biochar: A synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality. 41(4):973-989. [PDF]

  Morris, J., Crest, M., Barlaz, M., Spokas, K.A., Akerman, A., Yuan, L. 2012. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period. Waste Management. 32:2364-2373. [PDF]

  Venterea, R.T., Halvorson, A.D., Kitchen, N.R., Liebig, M.A., Cavigelli, M.A., Del Grosso, S.J., Motavalli, P.P., Nelson, K.A., Spokas, K.A., Singh, B.P., Stewart, C.E., Ranaivoson, A., Strock, J., Collins, H.P. 2012. Challenges and opportunities for mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized cropping systems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 10(10):562-570. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Novak, J.M., Venterea, R.T. 2012. Biochar’s role as an alternative N-fertilizer: Ammonia capturePlant and Soil. 350(1):35-42. [PDF]

  Gesch, R.W., Archer, D.W., Spokas, K.A. 2012. Can using polymer-coated seed reduce the risk of poor soybean emergence in no-tillage soil? Field Crops Research. 125:109-116. [PDF]

  Cabrera, A., Cox, L., Spokas, K.A., Hermosin, C., Cornejo, J., Koskinen, W.C. 2011. Comparative sorption and leaching study of the herbicides fluometuron and MCPA in a soil amended with biochar and other sorbents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(23):12550-12560. [PDF]

  Fabbri, D., Torri, C., Spokas, K.A. 2012. Analytical pyrolysis of synthetic chars derived from biomass with potential agronomic application (biochar). Relationships with impacts on microbial carbon dioxide production. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis. 93(1):77-84. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Bogner, J., Chanton, J. 2011. A process-based inventory model for landfill CH4 emissions inclusive of seasonal soil microclimate and CH4 oxidation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. 116:1-19. [PDF]

  Weyers, S.L., Spokas, K.A. 2011. Impact of biochar on earthworm populations: A review. Applied and Environmental Soil Science. doi: 10.1155/2011/541592. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Novak, J.M., Stewart, C.E., Cantrell, K.B., Uchimiya, S.M., Dusaire, M.G., Ro, K.S. 2011. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar. Chemosphere. 85(5):869-882. [PDF]

  Bogner, J., Spokas, K.A., Chanton, J. 2011. Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: Daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 40(3):1010-1020. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Bogner, J. 2011. Limits and dynamics of methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. Waste Management. 31(5):823-832. [PDF]

  Chanton, J., Abichou, T., Langford, C., Spokas, K.A., Hater, G., Goldsmith, D., Barlaz, M. 2011. Observations on the methane oxidation capacity of landfill soils. Waste Management. 31(5):914-925. [PDF]


2006 - 2010

  Spokas, K.A. 2010. Review of the stability of biochar in soils: Predictability of O:C molar ratios. Carbon Management. 1(2):289-303. [Supplemental Table S1] [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Baker, J.M., Reicosky, D. 2010. Ethylene: Potential key for biochar amendment impacts. Plant and Soil Journal. 333:443-452. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Reicosky, D.C. 2009. Impacts of sixteen different biochars on soil greenhouse gas production. Annals of Environmental Science. 3:179-193. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Koskinen, W.C., Baker, J.M., Reicosky, D.C. 2009. Impacts of Woodchip biochar additions on greenhouse gas production and sorption/degradation of two herbicides in a Minnesota soil. Chemosphere. 77:574-581. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Forcella, F. 2009. Software tools for weed seed germination modeling. Weed Science. 57(2):216-227. [PDF]

  La Scala, N., Lopes, A., Spokas, K.A., Archer, D.W., Reicosky, D.C. 2009. First-order decay models to describe soil C-CO2 loss after rotary tillage. Scientia Agricola. 66(5):650-657. [PDF]

  Scheutz, C., Kjeldsen, P., Bogner, J.E., De Visscher, A., Gebert, J., Hilger, H.A., Huber-Humer, M., Spokas, K.A. 2009. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions. Waste Management and Research. 27(5):409-455. [PDF]

  La Scala, N., Lopes, A., Spokas, K.A., Archer, D.W., Reicosky, D.C. 2009. Short-term temporal changes of bare soil CO2 fluxes described by first-order decay models. European Journal of Soil Science. 60(2):258-264. [PDF]

  Venterea, R.T., Spokas, K.A., Baker, J.M. 2009. Accuracy and precision analysis of chamber-based nitrous oxide gas flux estimates. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 73(4):1087-1093. [PDF]

  Schutte, B.J., Regnier, E.E., Harrison, S.K., Schmoll, J.T., Spokas, K.A., Forcella, F. 2008. A hydrothermal seedling emergence model for giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida). Weed Science. 56:555-560. [PDF]

  Lachnicht Weyers, S.L., Schomberg, H.H., Hendrix, P.F., Spokas, K.A., Endale, D.M. 2008. Construction of an electrical device for sampling earthworm populations in the field. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 24(3):391-397. [PDF]

  La Scala, Jr., N., Lopes, A., Spokas, K.A., Bolonhezi, D., Archer, D.W., Reicosky, D.C. 2008. Short-term temporal changes of soil carbon losses after tillage described by a first-order decay model. Soil & Tillage Research. 99:108-118. [PDF]

  Mcgiffin, M., Spokas, K.A., Forcella, F., Archer, D.W., Poppe, S., Figueroa, R. 2008. Emergence prediction of common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris). Weed Science. 56:58-65. [PDF]

  Martinson, K., Durgan, B., Forcella, F., Wiersma, J., Spokas, K.A., Archer, D.W. 2007. An emergence model for wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Science. 55:584-591. [PDF]                                    .

  Sakaliene, O., Papiernik, S.K., Koskinen, W.C., Spokas, K.A. 2007. Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B. 42:641-647. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Forcella, F., Archer, D.W., Reicosky, D.C. 2007. SeedChaser: Vertical soil tillage distribution model. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 57:62-73. [PDF]

  Forcella, F., Spokas, K.A., Gesch, R.W., Isbell, T., Archer, D.W. 2007. Swathing and windrowing as harvest aids for cuphea. Agronomy Journal. 99: 415-418. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., King, J., Wang, D., Papiernik, S.K. 2007. Effects of soil fumigants on methanotrophic activity. Atmospheric Environment. 41:8150-8162. [PDF]

  Venterea, R.T., Baker, J.M., Dolan, M.S., Spokas, K.A. 2006. Carbon and nitrogen storage are greater under biennial tillage in a Minnesota corn-soybean rotation. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 70:1752-1762.  [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Forcella, F. 2006. Estimating hourly incoming solar radiation from limited meteorological data. Weed Science. 54:182-189. [PDF]

  Wang, D., Fraedrich, S.W., Juzwik, J., Spokas, K., Zhang, Y., Koskinen, W.C. 2006. Fumigant concentration distribution in forest nursery soils under water seal and plastic film after application of dazomet, metam sodium, and chloropicrin. Pest Management Science. 62:263-273. [PDF]

  Spokas, K., Wang, D., Venterea, R.T., Sadowsky, M. 2006. Mechanisms of N2O production following chloropicrin fumigation. Applied Soil Ecology. 31:101-109. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Bogner, J., Chanton, J.P., Morcet, M., Aran, C., Graff, C., Modeau-Le Golvan, Y., Haebe, I. 2006. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture bygass collection systems? Waste Management. 26(5):516-525. [PDF]


2005 and Earlier

  Spokas, K., Wang, D., Venterea, R.T. 2005. Greenhouse gas production and emission from a forest nursery soil: Effects of fumigation with chloropicrin and methyl isothiocyanate. Journal of Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 37:475-485. [PDF]

  Wang, D., Juzwik, J., Fraedrich, S.W., Spokas, K.A., Zhang, Y., Koskinen, W.C. 2005. Atmospheric emissions of methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin following soil fumigation and surface containment treatment in bare-root forest nurseries. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35(5):1202-1212. [PDF]

  Venterea, R.T., Burger, M., Spokas, K.A. 2005. Nitrogen oxide and methane emissions under varying tillage and fertilizer management. Journal of Environmental Quality. 34:1467-1477. [PDF]

  Zhang, Y., Spokas, K.A., Wang, D. 2005. Degradation of methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin in forest nursery soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 34:1566-1572. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Graff, C., Morcet, M., Aran, C. 2003. Implications of the spatial variability of landfill emission rates on geospatial analyses. Waste Management. 23:599-607. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Wang, D. 2003. Stimulation of nitrous oxide production resulted from soil fumigation with chloropicrin. Atmospheric Environment. 37:3501-3507. [PDF]

  Bogner, J.E., Spokas, K.A., Burton, E.A. 1999. Temporal variations in greenhouse gas emissions at a mid-latitude landfill. Journal of Environmental Quality. 28(1):278-288. [PDF]

  Bogner, J.E., Spokas, K.A., Burton, E.A. 1997. Kinetics of methane oxidation in a landfill cover soil: Temporal variations, a whole landfill oxidation experiment, and modeling of net methane emissions. Environmental Science and Technology. 31(9):2504-2514. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Bogner, J.E. 1996. Field systems for continuous measurement of landfill gas pressures and temperatures. Waste Management & Research. 14(3):233-242. [PDF]

  Bogner, J.E., Spokas, K.A., Burton, E.A., Sweeney, R., Corona, V. 1995. Landfills as atmospheric sources and sinks. Chemosphere. 31:4119-4130. [PDF]

  Bogner, J.E., Miller, R., Spokas, K.A. 1995. Measurement of microbial biomass and activity in landfill soils. Waste Management and Research. 13:137-147. [PDF]


Book Chapters

  Zheng, W., Holm, N., Spokas, K.A. 2016. Research and application of biochar in North America. In: Guo, M., He, Z. Uchimiya, S.M., editors. Agricultural and Environmental Applications of Biochar: Advances and Barriers. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America, Inc. p. 475-494. [PDF]

  Ippolito, J.A., Spokas, K.A., Novak, J.M., Lentz, R.D., Cantrell, K.B. 2015. Biochar elemental composition and factors influencing nutrient retention. In: Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., editors. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, technology, and implementation. 2nd edition. New York, NY: Routledge. p. 137-161. [PDF]

  Van Zwieten, L., Kammann, C., Singh, B.P., Cayuela, M., Clough, T., Spokas, K.A., Kimber, S., Joseph, S. 2015. Biochar effects on gaseous losses of N2O and CH4. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology II. Routledge: Abingdon, UK, p. 489-520. [PDF]

  Masiello, C., Dugan, B., Brewer, C., Spokas, K., Novak, J., Liu, Z. & Sorrenti, G. 2015. Biochar effects on soil hydrology. In: Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. Biochar for Environmental Management Science, Technology and Implementation. 2nd Edition. London, UK: Routledge. p.541-560. [PDF]

  Jeffery, S., Abalos, D., Spokas, K.A., Verheijen, F. 2015. Biochar effects on crop yield. In: Lehmann, J., Joseph, S., editors. Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. p. 301-326. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Novak, J.M. 2015. Biochar: The field experience. In: Goreau, T.J., Larson, R.W., Campe, J., editors. Innovative Methods of Soil Fertility Restoration, Carbon Sequestration, and Reversing CO2 Increase. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 235-248. [PDF]

  He, Z., Mingxin, G., Lovanh, N., Spokas, K.A. 2012. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment. In: He, Z., editor. Applied Research of Animal Manure: Challenges and Opportunities beyond the Adverse Environmental Concerns. New York, NY:Nova Science. p. 299-309. [PDF]

  Cabrera, Mesa, A., Spokas, K.A. 2011. Impacts of biochar (black carbon) additions on the sorption and efficacy of herbicides [abstract]. In: Kortekamp, A., editor. Herbicides and Environment. Rijeka, Croatia. InTech. p. 315-340. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A. 2011. Stable isotopes in evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions. In: Encyclopedia of Agrophysics. J. Glinski, J. Horabik, and J. Lipiec (Eds). Springer. Heidelberg, Germany. pp. 845-849. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A. 2010. Production of ethylene following soil biochar additions [abstract]. 2010 U.S. Biochar Initiative Conference. [PDF]

  Bogner, J., Spokas, K.A. 2009. Landfill methane. In: Reay, D., Smith, P., and van Amstel, A. Methane and Climate Change. Earthscan Ltd., London, UK. pp. 175-200. [PDF]

  Johnson, J.M., Papiernik, S.K., Mikha, M.M., Spokas, K.A., Tomer, M.D., Weyers, S.L. 2009. Soil processes and residue harvest management. In: Lal, R., Stewart, B.A., editors. Soil Quality and Biofuel Production. Advances in Soil Science. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p. 1-44. [PDF]



  Spokas, K.A. 2007. Plastics: Still young, but having a mature impact [Editorial]. Waste Management. 28(3):473-474. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A. 2007. Methane: Signs of progress along the road [Editorial]. Waste Management. 27(4):459-460. [PDF]


Popular Publications

  Lentz, R.D., Ippolito, J.A., Spokas, K.A. 2015. Biochar and manure effects on nitrogen nutrition in silage corn. Nutrient Digest. 7(2):1,3-4. [PDF]

  Lentz, R.D., Ippolito, J.A., Spokas, K.A. 2015. The effects of biochar and manure in silage corn. Progressive Forage Grower. 16(2):26-29. [PDF]

  Spokas, K.A., Novak, J.M. 2013. Know your community - Biochar: agronomic and environmental uses community. CSA News. 58:25. [PDF]



  Spokas, K.A., Lim, T., Feyereisen, G.W., Novak, J.M. 2015. Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties [abstract]. Geophysical Research Abstracts. 17:EGU2015-6806.

  Ippolito, J.A., Lentz, R.D., Novak, J.M., Spokas, K.A., Collins, H.P., Streubel, J. 2011. Biochar usage: Pros and cons. Western Nutrient Management Conference Proceedings. 9:93-98.

  Spokas, K.A., Bogner, J., Chanton, J. 2009. A new IPCC tier 4 site-specific model for landfill methane emissions inclusive of seasonal methane oxidation. 6th Annual Climate Change Research Symposium, September 8-10, 2009, Sacramento, California.


Review Articles

  Mandal, S., Sakar, B., Bolan, N., Novak, J.M., Ok, Y., Van Zwieten, L., Bhupinder, P., Kirkham, M., Choppala, G., Spokas, K.A., Nadu. R. 2016. Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 46(17):1367-1401. [PDF]


Trade Journals

  Spokas, K.A., Jacobson, B. 2010. Impacts of strobilurin fungicides on yield and soil microbial processes for Minnesota strawberry production. Minnesota Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association. January 21-22, 2010. St. Cloud, MN. pp. 25-29. [PDF]

  Bogner, J., Spokas, K.A., Chanton, J., Franco, G. 2009. Moving up to the top of the landfill: A field-validated, science-based methane emissions inventory model for California landfills. MSW Management. 19(2):36-39. [PDF]