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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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  1. C Trigo, L Cox, K Spokas. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and hardwood species on resulting biochar properties and their effect on azimsulfuron sorption as compared to other sorbents. Science of the Total Environment 566, 1454-1464
  2. S Mandal, B Sarkar, N Bolan, J Novak, YS Ok, L Van Zwieten, BP Singh, ...Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 00-00
  3. A Williams, AS Davis, PM Ewing, AS Grandy, DA Kane, RT Koide, ...Precision control of soil nitrogen cycling via soil functional zone management Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 231, 291-295
  4. A Williams, AS Davis, PM Ewing, AS Grandy, DA Kane, RT Koide, ...A comparison of soil hydrothermal properties in zonal and uniform tillage systems across the US Corn Belt Geoderma 273, 12-19
  5. JM Novak, JA Ippolito, RD Lentz, KA Spokas, CH Bolster, K Sistani, ...Soil health, crop productivity, microbial transport, and mine spoil response to biochars BioEnergy Research 9 (2), 454-464
  6. C Trigo, KA Spokas, KE Hall, L Cox, WC Koskinen Metolachlor Sorption and Degradation in Soil Amended with Fresh and Aged Biochars Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64 (16), 3141-3149
  7. Q Wang, S Gao, D Wang, K Spokas, A Cao, D Yan Mechanisms for 1, 3-dichloropropene dissipation in biochar-amended soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64 (12), 2531-2540
  8. TJ Lim, KA Spokas, G Feyereisen, JM Novak Predicting the impact of biochar additions on soil hydraulic properties Chemosphere 142, 136-144
  9. J Novak, G Sigua, D Watts, K Cantrell, P Shumaker, A Szogi, MG Johnson, ...Biochars impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer Chemosphere 142, 160-167
  10. GC Sigua, JM Novak, DW Watts, MG Johnson, K Spokas Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer Chemosphere 142, 176-183
  11. KS Ro, JM Novak, MG Johnson, AA Szogi, JA Libra, KA Spokas, S Bae Leachate water quality of soils amended with different swine manure-based amendments Chemosphere 142, 92-99
  12. A Williams, DA Kane, PM Ewing, LW Atwood, A Jilling, M Li, Y Lou, ... Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems Frontiers in Plant Science 7
  13. J Novak, K Ro, YS Ok, G Sigua, K Spokas, S Uchimiya, N Bolan Biochars multifunctional role as a novel technology in the agricultural, environmental, and industrial sectors. Chemosphere 142, 1



1.      Spokas, K., Bogner, J., Corcoran, M., and Walker, S. 2015. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions Elem. Sci. Anthrocene 3:00051.

2.      Hall, K.E., Ray,C. Ki, S-J., Spokas, K.A., Koskinen, W.C. 2015. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils. J. Environ. Manage. Accepted in Press.

3.      Garcia-Jaramillo, M., Cox, L., Knicker, H., Cornejo, J., Spokas, K., del Carmen-Hermosin, M. 2015. Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil. J. Haz Mat. 286:581-588.

4.      Yargicoglu, E.N., Sadasivam, B.Y., Reddy, K.R., Spokas, K.A. 2015. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars. Waste Manage.36, 256-268.

5.      Xie, T., Reddy, K.R., Wang, C., Yargicoglu, E., Spokas, K., 2015. Characteristics and applications of biochar for environmental remediation: A review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci.Technol. 45, 939-969.

6.      Thomazini, A., Spokas, K., Hall, K., Ippolito, J., Lentz, R., Novak, J., 2015. GHG impacts of biochar: Predictability for the same biochar. Agric., Ecosyst. Environ. 207, 183-191.

7.      Thomazini, A., Mendon?a, E.S., Teixeira, D.B., Almeida, I.C.C., La Scala Jr, N., Canellas, L.P., Spokas, K.A., Milori, D.M.B.P., Turbay, C.V.G., Fernandes, R.B.A., Schaefer, C.E.G.R., 2015. CO2 and N2O emissions in a soil chronosequence at a glacier retreat zone in Maritime Antarctica. Sci. Total Environ. 521-522, 336-345.

8.      Cambaliza, M.O.L., Shepson, P.B., Bogner, J., Caulton, D.R., Stirm, B., Sweeney, C., Montzka, S.A., Gurney, K.R., Spokas, K., Salmon, O.E., Lavoie, T.N., Hendricks, A., Mays, K., Turnbull, J., Miller, B.R., Lauvaux, T., Davis, K., Karion, A., Moser, B., Miller, C., Obermeyer, C., Whetstone, J., Prasad, K., Miles, N., Richardson, S., 2015. Quantification and source apportionment of the methane emission flux from the city of Indianapolis. Elem. Sci. Anth. 3, 000037.

9.      Novak, J.M., Sigua, G.C., Spokas, K.A., Busscher, W.J., Cantrell, K.B., Watts, D.W., Glaz, B., Hunt, P.G., 2015. Plant macro- and micronutrient dynamics in a biochar-amended wetland muck. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 226, 1-9.

10.  Chintala, R., Owen, R., Schumacher, T., Spokas, K., McDonald, L., Kumar, S., Clay, D., Malo, D., Bleakley, B., 2015. Denitrification kinetics in biomass- and biochar-amended soils of different landscape positions.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22, 5152-5163.



1.   Trigo, C., Spokas, K.A., Cox, L., Koskinen, W. 2014. Influence of soil biochar aging on sorption of the herbicides MCPA, nicosulfuron, terbuthylazine, indaziflam, and fluoroethyldiaminotriazine.J. Ag. Food Chem 62, 10855?10860.

2.   Lin, X.,Spokas, K.A., Venterea, R.T., Baker, J.M., Zhang, R., and Feyereisen, G. 2014.  Assessing microbial contributions to N2O impacts following biochar additions.Agronomy 4, 478-496.

3.     Heilmann, S., Molde, J.S., Timler, J.G., Wood, B.M., Mikula, A. L., Valentas, K.J.,Spokas, K.A., Colosky, E. Phosphorus reclamation through hydrothermal carbonization of animal manures.Environmental Science & Technology48 (17): 10323-10329. 2014.

4.      Spokas, K., Novak, J.M., Masiello, C.A., Johnson, M.G., Colosky, E.C., Ippolito, J., and Trigo, C.C. Physical disintegration of biochar: An overlooked process,Environmental Science & TechnologyLetters 1(8): 326-332. 2014.

5.      Lentz, R., Ippolito, J., andSpokas, K. 2014. Biochar and manure effects on net N mineralization and greenhouse gas emissions from calcareous soil under corn.Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 78:1641-1655. 2014

6.      Xie, T., Reddy, K.R., Wang, C., Yargicoglu, E., andSpokas, K. 2014. Characteristics and applications of biochar for environmental remediation: A review,Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol.45:939-969.

7.      Novak, J. M., Spokas, K.A., Cantrell, K.B., Ro, K.S., Watts, D.W., Glaz, B., Busscher, W.J., and Hunt, P.G. 2014. Effects of biochars and hydrochars produced from lignocellulosic and animal manure on fertility of a Mollisol and Entisol.Soil Use Manage. 30(2):175-181.

8.      Hall, K.E., Calderon, M.J.,Spokas, K.A., Cox, L., Koskinen, W.C., Novak, J., Cantrell, K., 2014. Phenolic acid sorption to biochars from mixtures of feedstock materials.Water, Air,& Soil Pollution 225, 1-9.

9.      Borchard, N.,Spokas, K., Prost, K., and Siemens, J. 2014. Greenhouse gas production in mixtures of soil with composted and non-composted biochars is governed by char-associated organic compounds.Journal of Environmental Quality. 43, 971-979.

10.  Rittenhouse JL, Rice PJ,Spokas KA, Koskinen WC, 2014. Assessing biochar's ability to reduce bioavailability of aminocyclopyrachlor in soils.Environmental Pollution189, 92-97.

11.  Weyers, S. L. andSpokas, K. A.,2014. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots,Solid Earth5, 499-507.

12.  Smith, R., Davis, A., Jordan, N., Atwood, L, Daly, A, Grandy, S., Hunter, M., Koide, R., Mortensen, D., Ewing, P., Kane, D., Li, M., Lou, Y., Snapp, S.,Spokas, K., and Yannarell, A. 2014. Structural equation modeling facilitates transdisciplinary research on agriculture and climate change,Crop Science. 54, 475-483.

13.  Li Y, Cheng R,Spokas KA, Palmer AA, Borevitz JO, 2014. Genetic variation for life history sensitivity to seasonal warming inArabidopsis thaliana. Genetics 196, 569-77.

14.  Cabrera, A., Cox, L., Spokas, K., Hermos?n, M. C., Cornejo, J., & Koskinen, W. C. 2014. Influence of biochar amendments on the sorption-desorption of aminocyclopyrachlor, bentazone and pyraclostrobin pesticides to an agricultural soil. Science of the Total Environment, 470, 438-443.


2013 and earlier

  1. Fabbri, D., Rombol, A.G., Torri, C., Spokas, K.A., 2013. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar and biochar amended soil. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 103, 60-67.
  2. Spokas, K.A., 2013. Impact of biochar field aging on laboratory greenhouse gas production potentials. GCB Bioenergy 5, 165-176.
  3. Spokas, K.A., Cantrell, K.B., Novak, J.M., Archer, D.W., Ippolito, J.A., Collins, H.P., Boateng, A.A., Lima, I.M., Lamb, M.C., McAloon, A.J., Lentz, O.D., Nichols, K.A. 2012 . Biochar: A synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration. Journal of Environmental Quality. 41(4):973-989.
  4. Morris, J., Crest, M., Barlaz, M., Spokas, K.A., Akerman, A., Yuan, L. 2012. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period. Waste Management. 32, 2364-2373.
  5. Venterea, R.T., Halvorson, A.D., Kitchen, N.R., Liebig, M.A., Del Grosso, S.J., Cavigelli, M.A., Motavalli, P.P., Nelson, K.A., Spokas, K.A., Singh, B.P., Stewart, C.E., Ranaivoson, A., Storck, J., Collins, H.P. 2012. Technical challenges and opportunities for mitigating nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized cropping systems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 10:562-570.
  6. Spokas, K.A., Novak, J.M., Venterea, R.T. 2012. Biochar's role as an alternative N-fertilizer:Ammonia capture. Plant and Soil. 350(1):35-42.
  7. Gesch, R.W., Archer, D.W., Spokas, K.A. 2012. Can using polymer-coated seed reduce the risk of poor soybean emergence in no-tillage soil? Field Crops Research. 125:109-116.
  8. Cabrera-Mesa, A., L. Cox., K. Spokas, C. Hermosin, J. Cornejo, W. Koskinen, 2011. Comparative sorption and leaching study of the herbicides fluometuron and MCPA in a soil amended with biochar and other sorbents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(23), 12550-12560.
  9.  Fabbri, D., C. Torri and K.A. Spokas, 2012. Analytical pyrolysis of synthetic chars derived from biomass with potential agronomic application (biochar). Relationships with impacts on microbial carbon dioxide production. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis. 93(1):77-84.
  10. Spokas, K., J. Bogner, and J. Chanton, 2011. A process-based inventory model for landfill CH4 emissions inclusive of seasonal soil microclimate and CH4 oxidation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. JOURNAL VOL. 116, G04017, 19 PP. doi:10.1029/2011JG001741
  11. Weyers, S.W. and K.A. Spokas, 2011. Impact of biochar on earthworm populations: A review.  Appl. Environ. Soil Sci.  DOI: 10.1155/2011/541592
  12. Spokas, K.A., J.M. Novak, C.E. Stewart, K.B. Cantrell, M. Uchimiya, M.G. duSaire, and K.S. Ro, 2011. Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar. Chemosphere 85(5):869-882. 
  13. Bogner, J.E., K.A. Spokas, and J.P. Chanton, 2011. Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: Daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils. J. Env. Qual. 40:1010-1020.
  14. Spokas, K. and J. Bogner, 2011. Limits and dynamics of methane oxidation in landfill cover soils. Waste Management. 31:823-832. 
  15. Spokas, K., 2010. Review of the stability of biochar in soils: Predictability of O:C molar ratios.  Carbon Management 1(2):289-303. [Supplemental Table S1]
  16. Spokas, K., Baker, J., Reicosky, D., 2010. Ethylene: Potential key for biochar amendment impacts. Plant Soil. 333:443-452. 
  17. Spokas, K., D. Reicosky, 2009. Impacts of sixteen different biochars on soil greenhouse gas production  Ann. Environ. Sci. 3:179-193.
  18. Spokas, K., W.C. Koskinen, J. M. Baker and D.C. Reicosky, 2009. Impacts of Woodchip Biochar Additions on Greenhouse Gas Production and Sorption/Degradation of Two Herbicides in a Minnesota Soil. Chemosphere, 77:574-581.
  19. Spokas, K. and F. Forcella, 2009. Software Tools for Weed Seed Germination Modeling. Weed Science 57, 216-227.
  20. La Scala Jr., N., A. Lopes, K. Spokas, D. W. Archer, D. C. Reicosky, 2009. First-Order Decay Models to Describe Soil C-CO2 Loss after Rotary Tillage. Scientia Agricola 66(5): 650-667.
  21. Scheutz, C., Bogner, J., De Visscher, A., Gebert, J., Hilger, H., Huber-Humer, M., Kjeldsen, P., and  Spokas, K. 2009.  Mitigation of landfill gas emissions by microbial methane oxidation - a review. Waste Management and Research 27(5):409-455.  
  22. La Scala Jr., N., A. Lopes, K. Spokas, D. W. Archer, D. C. Reicosky, 2009. Short-term temporal changes of bare soil CO2 fluxes described by first-order decay models. European Journal of Soil Science 60, 258-264.
  23. Venterea, R., Spokas, K., Baker, J., 2008. Effects of soil consumption and measurement error on chamber-based nitrous oxide gas flux estimates. Soil Science of America Journal 73(4), 1087-1093
  24. Schutte, B.J., E.E. Regnier, S. K. Harrison,  K. Spokas, and F. Forcella, 2008.  A Hydrothermal Seedling Emergence Model for Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida). Weed Science 56:555-560.
  25. Weyers, S.L., H.H. Schomberg, P.F. Hendrix, K.A. Spokas, D.M. Endale, 2008. Construction of an electrical device for sampling earthworm populations in the field. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 24(3):391-397
  26. La Scala Jr., L. Afonso,  K. Spokas, B. Denizart,  D. W. Archer, D. C. Reicosky, 2008. Short-term temporal changes of soil carbon losses after tillage described by a first-order decay model. Soil & Tillage Research. 99:108-118.
  27. McGiffen, M., K. Spokas, F. Forcella, D. Archer, S. Poppe, and  R. Figueroa, 2008. Emergence Prediction of Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris). Weed Science 56:58-65.
  28. Spokas, K., J. King, D. Wang, and S. Papiernik, 2007.  Effects of soil fumigants on methanotrophic activity. Atmospheric Environment 41:8150-8162.
  29. Martinson, K., B. Durgan, F. Forcella, J. Wiersma, K. Spokas, and D.Archer, 2007. An Emergence Model For Wild Oat (Avena fatua). Weed Science 55:584-591.
  30.  Sakaliene, O., S.K. Papiernik, W.C. Koskinen, and K.A. Spokas. 2007. Sorption and predicted mobility of herbicides in Baltic soils. Journal of Environmental Science and Health part B. 42: 641-647.
  31.  Spokas, K., F. Forcella, D. Archer, D. Reicosky, 2007. SeedChaser: Vertical soil tillage distribution model. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 57: 62-73.
  32. Forcella, F., Spokas, K., Gesch, R., Isbell, T., and Archer, D. 2007. Swathing and windrowing as harvest aids for cuphea. Agronomy Journal 99: 415-418.
  33. Venterea, R.T., J.M. Baker, M. S. Dolan, K.A. Spokas, 2006. Carbon and Nitrogen Storage are Greater under Biennial Tillage in a Minnesota Corn-Soybean Rotation. Soil Sci. Am. J. 70:1752-1762.
  34. Spokas, K., and F. Forcella. 2006. Estimating Hourly Incoming Solar Radiation from Limited Meteorological Data. Weed Science 54: 182-189.
  35. Spokas, K., J. Bogner, J.P. Chanton, M. Morcet, C. Aran, C. Graff, Y. Moreau-Le Golvan, I. Hebe, 2006. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems? Waste Management 26(5):516-25.
  36. Wang, D., S.W. Fraedrich, J. Juzwik, K. Spokas, Y. Zhang, W.C. Koskinen, 2006. Fumigant distribution in forest nursery soils under water seal and plastic film after application of dazomet, metam-sodium and chloropicrin. Pest Management Science 62(3): 263-273. 
  37. Spokas, K., D. Wang, R. Venterea and M. Sadowsky, 2006. Mechanisms of N2O production following chloropicrin fumigation. Applied Soil Ecology 31(1-2):101-109.
  38. Spokas, K., D. Wang, R. Venterea, 2005. Greenhouse gas production and emission from a forest nursery soil following fumigation with chloropicrin and methyl isothiocyanate. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37, 475-485.
  39. Wang, D., Juzwik, J., Fraedrich, S.W., Spokas, K., Zhang, Y., Koskinen, W.C., 2005. Atmospheric emissions of methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin following soil fumigation and surface containment treatment in bare-root forest nurseries., Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35(5), 1202-1212.
  40. Venterea, R.T., M. Burger, and K.A. Spokas, 2005. Nitrogen Oxide and Methane Emissions under Varying Tillage and Fertilizer Management. J. Environ. Qual.  34:1467-1477
  41. Zhang, Y, K. Spokas, and D. Wang , 2005. Degradation of Methyl Isothiocyanate and Chloropicrin in Forest Nursery Soils J. Environ. Qual. 34: 1566-1572.  
  42. Spokas, K., C. Graff, M. Morcet, and C. Aran, 2003. Geospatial analysis to calculate landfill emission rates from chamber measurements, Waste Management 23, 599-607.
  43. Spokas, K. and D. Wang, 2003. Stimulation of nitrous oxide production resulted from soil fumigation with chloropicrin, Atmospheric Environment 37, 3501-3507.
  44. Bogner, J.E., K.A. Spokas, and E.A. Burton, 1999. Temporal variations in greenhouse gas emissions at a mid-latitude landfill, Journal of Environmental Quality 28(1),278-88.
  45. Bogner, J.E., K.A. Spokas, E.A. Burton, 1997. Kinetics of methane oxidation in a landfill cover soil: Temporal variations, a whole landfill oxidation experiment, and modeling of net methane emissions, Environmental Science and Technology 31(9), 2504-2514.
  46. Spokas, K.A., and Bogner, J.E., 1996. Field system for continuous measurement of landfill gas pressures and temperatures, Waste Management Research 14(3), 233-242.
  47. Bogner, J., K. Spokas, E. Burton, R. Sweeney, and V. Corona, 1995. Landfills as atmospheric sources and sinks, Chemosphere  31, 4119-4130.
  48. Bogner, J., R. Miller, and K. Spokas, 1995. Measurement of microbial biomass and activity in landfill soils. Waste Manage. Res. 13, 137-147.  
Total: 85 published manuscripts

Last Modified: 10/26/2016
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