|Watershed Characterization of Managed Turf
- Approximately 50,000,000 acres of turf in US.
- Turf is most in intensively managed landuse in the urban landscape.
- Turf rivals agricultural crops such as corn and soybeans as the primary landuse in several states.
- Public perception identifies managed turf, especially golf courses as significantly contributing to nonpoint source pollution.
- Assess and characterize the environmental aspects of urban and golf course turf
- Quantify long-term watershed scale hydrology and water quality aspects of managed turf
- Measure storm event and baseflow hydrology and water quality from three managed turf sites in three varying climatic regions on surface runoff and baseflow and collect water quality samples.
- Discharge expressed as a fraction of rainfall is considerably greater compared to other land uses.
- Measured nitrate concentrations contributed by the courses are well below drinking water standards.
- Dissolved phosphorus concentrations generally exceed levels consistent with those known to lead to eutrophication.
- Pesticide concentrations were generally low although seasonal spikes have been measured.
- Determine and quantify water quality contribution from different transport processes.
- Establish the partitioning of hydrology and water quality in baseflow, subsurface drainage and storm event runoff from managed turf by continuous measurement.
- Hydrology of subsurface drainage is significantly linked to irrigation.
- 20-60% of pollutants exiting the site are cycled through the subsurface drainage network.
- Relate hydrology and water quality findings to turf management and evaluate turfgrass Best Management Practices.
- Correlate nutrient and pesticide losses to fertility, pest and irrigation management.
- Approximately 15% of the applied nitrogen is captured in discharge waters
- Most significant phosphorus losses occur during turf dormancy
- Reducing phosphorus application and modifying the irrigation strategy suggests a decrease in phosphorus concentration
WATERSHED CHARACTERIZATION OF MANAGED TURF (PDF)