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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Distribution of Individual Carotenoids in Lipoproteins of Premenopausal Women: a Controlled Dietary Study

Authors
item Forman, Michele - NCI, BETHESDA, MD
item Johnson, Elizabeth - TUFTS UNIVERSITY, MA
item Lanza, Elaine - NCI, BETHESDA, MD
item Graubard, Barry - NCI, BETHESDA, MD
item Beecher, Gary
item Muesing, Richard - GEO WASH UN MED CENTER

Submitted to: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 5, 1997
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: The effect of diet on health is studied by monitoring the response of biological markers. Often a small change in metabolism over a long period of time can have a significant effect on health. However, there are normal body cycles and variation among individuals which often are greater than the overall dietary-induced modulation. Therefore, we conducted a controlled dietary study which investigated the distribution of carotenoids in lipoproteins by phase of the menstrual cycle. Nine women were given a standard set of carotenoid-rich foods daily for two menstrual cycles. During the second cycle, blood was drawn during the early and late follicular, and luteal phases to simultaneously measure serum hormones and carotenoids. Based on regression analysis, beta-carotene concentrations in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and in high density lipoprotein subfraction 2 (HDL2) were higher in the late follicular than luteal phases. Similarly, concentrations of lutein plus zeaxanthin in LDL and HDL followed the same cyclic trends. In each phase of the cycle, 79-80% of alpha-carotene, 81-82% of beta-carotene, and 84-85% of lycopene were distributed in LDL compared to 63-64% of lutein plus zeaxanthin. These data show that menstrual phase significantly alters the concentration of carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions, and that this effect may be due to modification of the carotenoid distribution pattern.

Technical Abstract: This is one of very few controlled diet studies which describes the distribution of carotenoids in lipoproteins by phase of the menstrual cycle. Nine women, with a confirmed ovulatory cycle in the free-living state, were given a standard set of carotenoid- rich foods daily for two cycles under isoenergetic conditions. During the second cycle, blood was drawn during the early and late follicular, and luteal phases to simultaneously measure serum hormones and carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions. Based on regression analysis, beta-carotene concentrations in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and in high density lipoprotein subfraction 2 (HDL2) were higher in the late follicular than luteal phases. Concentrations of lutein plus zeaxanthin in LDL and HDL were higher in the late follicular than luteal phases. In each phase of the cycle, 79-80% of alpha-carotene, 81-82% of beta-carotene, and 84-85% of lycopene were distributed in LDL compared to 63-64% of lutein plus zeaxanthin. The distribution in HDL was 17-18% for alpha- plus beta-carotene, and 12-13% for lycopene, with slightly more in HDL2 than HDL3. About 34% lutein plus zeaxanthin was distributed in HDL, with 11%, 16% and 12% in HDL2 and 23%, 18% and 22%in HDL3 during the early and late follicular, and luteal phases, respectively. These data show that menstrual phase significantly alters the concentration of carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions, and that this effect may be due to modification of the carotenoid distribution pattern.

Last Modified: 8/21/2014
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