Submitted to: Pig Veterinary Society International Congress Proceedings
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: November 30, 1997
Publication Date: N/A
It is commonly understood that the early use of artificial insemination (AI) in swine occurred in the 1930's. It is estimated that there are 15 to 20 million sows inseminated by AI worldwide. Extenders used to the greatest degree at the present time are the Beltsville TS (BTS), MR-A and Kiev and Androhep. All are routinely stored at about 18 C before being used. Frozen boar semen is used primarily for transferring specific blood lines from one country or state to another. Since the development of a practical freezing method beginning on a commercial scale in 1975, it has been used in more than 50 countries of the world. Average farrowing rates with frozen semen are 50 to 60%. There is insufficient production of offspring compared to liquid semen or natural service; consequently, frozen semen has limited use. New advances in swine reproductive technologies suggest that many changes in swine AI could be on the horizon. The future is likely to see more active embryo transfer with the development of non-surgical transfer techniques. Sex preselection provides a new opportunity to gain greater genetic merit as well as improved management flexibility using the Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology which employs flow cytometric sperm separation into X and Y populations based on the differing DNA content of X and Y boar sperm. Within the next ten years it would seem likely that 75% of the worlds female swine population will be artificially inseminated.