Submitted to: Journal of Applied Poultry Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 2, 1999
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Hatching eggs can be contaminated with Salmonella and other human enteropathogens due to exposure on the breeder farm. Eggs that are contaminated can cause large numbers of chicks to be contaminated in the commercial hatching environment. Such contamination can be traced through poultry production and found on the final food product, potentially causing illness in the consumer. Use of chemical disinfectants with application of vacuum was tested as a method to sanitize hatching eggs and lower the number of Salmonella. 1.4 % hydrogen peroxide and 0.035% polyhexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) were found to lower the number of inoculated eggs remaining positive for Salmonella. PHMB applied with a vacuum caused a 94% reduction in the number of Salmonella positive eggs. These results can be used by hatchery managers, producers and extension specialists when designing procedures to lower the transmission of Salmonella through the poultry production system.
Technical Abstract: In an attempt to draw chemicals deeper into the egg to kill bacteria, vacuum was used. Hatching eggs (42oC) were inoculated by 1 min dip in a suspension of 104 cells per ml Salmonella Typhimurium or Salmonella Heidelberg maintained at 21oC. Following a 4 hr dry period the eggs were immersed into 0.035% polyhexamethylenebiguaninde hydrochloride (PHMB) or 1.4% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Atmospheric pressure dip (10 min) was compared to a vacuum cycle (4 min) followed by an atmospheric pressure dip (6 min). Immersion in PHMB without the vacuum step resulted in eliminating S. Typhimurium from 26 of 30 eggs and S. Heidelberg from 23 of 30 eggs. Use of H2O2 as an atmospheric pressure dip resulted in the elimination of S. Typhimurium from 17 of 30 eggs and S. Heidelberg from 24 of 30 eggs. Addition of the vacuum step increased the effectiveness of both chemicals against both strains of Salmonella. Immersion in PHMB with the vacuum step resulted in eliminating S. Typhimurium from 29 of 30 eggs and S. Heidelberg from 24 of 30 eggs. Use of H2O2 with the vacuum resulted in the elimination of S. Typhimurium from 27 of 30 eggs and S. Heidelberg from 27 of 30 eggs.