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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Application of Weed Seed Bank Ecology to Weed Management

Author
item Forcella, Frank

Submitted to: United Nations University International Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: September 24, 1997
Publication Date: N/A

Technical Abstract: WeedCast is computer software that simulates weed seed dormancy, timing of seedling emergence, and seedling height growth in crop environments in real time and using actual or forecasted weather data. Weather data includes daily rainfall and minimum and maximum air temperatures. Air temperatures are converted to average daily soil temperature at 5 cm soil depth using a series of equations that are specific for soil type, tillage system, and previous years' crop residue type. Daily rainfall and soil temperature estimates are combined to determine soil water potential (MPa) at 5 cm depth. Daily estimated Mpa or soil temperatures are matched to empirically-derived threshold values that induce secondary dormancy in seeds of certain species. Soil growing degree days (GDD), calculated from soil temperatures, are used to project maximum emergence rates of weed seedlings. Emergence ceases on days when MPa falls below threshold values specific to each species. Emergence ceases on days when MPa falls below threshold values specific to each species. GDD based on air temperatures are used to estimate postemergence seedling height growth. All three types of simulations provide information that allows users to answer important weed management questions in real time. These types of questions include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) are soil-applied treatments necessary, (2) how late can preemergence herbicides be applied, (3) when should mechanical control be implemented, (4) when should field-scouting commence and end, and (5) when should postemergence herbicides be applied?

Last Modified: 8/29/2014
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