|Reinert, John - UF COLLABORATOR|
|Kaiser, Paul - USDA/APHIS/PPQ|
Submitted to: Journal of the Mosquito Control Association
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 1, 1997
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, has historically been very important in the transmission of malaria in the eastern half of the United States in addition to being a pest of humans and their domesticated animals. Several recent malaria cases (1990-1996) from Florida, New Jersey, New York and Texas have been attributed to this species. In the late 1980s and early 1990s scientists working at the USDA's, Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, Florida, discovered that Anopheles quadrimaculatus, which had previously been thought to be a single species, was actually a group of five closely related species. This report provides results of a detailed study to distinguish all life stages of the five species using several different techniques. These techniques included examining the anatomy of all life stages, the characterization of the chromosomes, the evaluation of body enzymes, and an analysis of the chemicals from the external body surfaces. Information also is provided on the ecology of the immature stages and the feeding behavior of the adult mosquitoes. Descriptions and identification aids are given as well as the known distribution of the five species. This information will be very useful to people involved in mosquito control, public health, and disease investigations of humans and their domesticated animals.
Technical Abstract: The Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex of 5 cryptic species (i.e., An. diluvialis Reinert, new species; An. inundatus Reinert, new species; An. maverlius Reinert, new species; An. quadrimaculatus Say; An. smaragdinus Reinert, new species) is analyzed utilizing multiple techniques which included morphological, cytological, molecular, genetic, biochemical and ecological procedures. All life stages (egg, 4th-instar larva, pupa, and female and male adults) are described using morphological features and pertinent stages or structures are illustrated. A neotype for An. quadrimaculatus is designated and the synonymy of An. annulimanus Van der Wulp is confirmed. Several new morphological features are described. New, and summarized data from published literature, on hybridization, cytological, electrophoretic, molecular, and cuticular hydrocarbon studies are included. Immature and adult bionomics are given. Geographic distribution for each species is listed and shown on maps. Detailed procedures for collecting, processing and rearing specimens are described. Keys using morphological characters are included for the eggs, 4th-instar larvae, pupae, adult females and male genitalia. Also, a biochemical key for the 5 species is included. Color and pattern variations of larvae and pupae are discussed.