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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Physical Characteristics of Cyclone Particulate Emissions

Authors
item Hughs, Sidney
item Wakelyn, Phillip - WASHINGTON, D.C.

Submitted to: Applied Engineering in Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 11, 1996
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Because of proposed changes in the Federal particulate matter (PM) standard by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), it is necessary to better characterize the physical size characteristics of particulate emissions from cotton gin cyclone exhausts. It is also desirable to develop a rapid way of measuring emission levels both for compliance testing and to document changes in emission levels from improved control technology. Particulate emissions were sampled at commercial gins in both California and New Mexico during the 1994 ginning season. It was determined that the percentage of particles 10 microns (PM10) and less in diameter (of interest to EPA) made up approximately 50% of the total particulate emitted. Of these particles, only about 0.5 to 2.5% were 2.5 microns or less in diameter. It was also determined that the visual opacity of the air plume rising from a cyclone collector was not a good indicator of the amount of particulate being emitted. However, a device called a Hand-held Aerosol Monitor gave a reasonably good indication of the levels of PM10 particulate in the air.

Technical Abstract: A series of particulate emission tests were conducted on cotton gins in New Mexico and California. All measured exhausts used high efficiency cyclones as emission control devices. Total suspended particulate (TSP) for all gins averaged between 0.069 and 0.092 g/m3 (0.03 and 0.04 grains per dry standard cubic foot (gr/dscf)) of air emitted. The PM10 fraction of the TSP ranged between 35 and 69% depending on the method of determination. Levels of PM2.5 were determined to be between 0.4 and 2.5% of TSP. Opacity readings taken both during these tests and in earlier tests did not correlate with TSP and cannot be used to reliably estimate TSP concentrations. The Hand-held Aerosol Monitor (HAM) correlates well with PM10 levels determined by the Coulter Counter and may be used by gin management for quick evaluation of emission control systems.

Last Modified: 9/2/2014
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