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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Response of Cotton Varieties and Breeding Lines to Reniform Nematodes

Authors
item Cook, Charles
item Namken, L - TX AGRIC EXP STA-WESLACO

Submitted to: Texas Agricultural Extension Service Regional Report
Publication Type: Experiment Station
Publication Acceptance Date: December 20, 1996
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Reniform nematodes (ROTYLENCHULUS RENIFORMIS) cause severe damage to cotton (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM) production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and several other cotton producing areas of south Texas. Several breeding programs have begun to focus on developing germplasm with improved resistance/tolerance to reniform nematodes. In 1996, a study was conducted in both nematode-infested and fumigated soils to evaluate the yield potential of several advanced breeding strains and commercial cultivars. Average lint yield of the evaluated strains and cultivars was reduced by 30.4%. An experimental USDA-ARS breeding line, C118-2-93, showed the lowest yield reduction (5.8%), followed by the USDA-ARS line, C95360, and UAP line, 001-3-93, which had reduction of 20.6% and 21.3% respectively. The greatest yield reduction occurred for the commercial cultivars, Deltapine 50 (40.7%) and Stoneville 453 (39.8 %). Several experimental breeding lines showed improved yield over the commercial varieties. Comparisons with the obsolete variety, Clevewilt-6, the lowest yield entry in both nematode-infested and nematode-free soils, demonstrated the yield gains achieved in the past 40 years through genetic breeding. These findings indicated that progress is being made for improving both yield potential and host tolerance or resistance to reniform nematodes.

Technical Abstract: Cotton (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM) production in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas can often be affected by reniform nematodes (ROTYLENCHULUS RENIFORMIS). In general, the most effective reniform nematode control measures have included crop rotations with nonhost crops, nematicides, and efficient weed control. A study was conducted in 1996 to evaluate several advanced breeding strains and commercial cultivars when grown in the presence of reniform nematodes and to determine if progress had been made in breeding for host plant resistance/tolerance. Reniform nematodes reduced average lint yield by 30.4%. An experimental USDA-ARS breeding line, C118-2-93, showed the lowest yield reduction (5.8%), followed by the USDA-ARS line, C95360, and UAP line, 001-3-93, which had reductions of 20.6% and 21.3%, respectively. The two greatest yield reductions were observed for the commercial cultivars, Deltapine 50 (40.7%) and Stoneville 453 (39.8%). Several new breeding lines showed improved yields over the commercial cultivars. Comparisons with the obsolete variety, Clevewilt-6, the lowest yielding entry in both nematode-infested and nematode-free soils, demonstrated the yield gains achieved in the past 40 years through genetic breeding.

Last Modified: 12/21/2014
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