Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 4, 1996
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The Mexican fruit fly and other fruit flies rank among the most damaging fruit pests in the world. Wherever Mexican fruit flies live or could be introduced, such as Texas, California and Florida, agricultural agencies must monitor their populations with traps. Most trap users agree that standard protein baits that can be used in dry traps are badly needed. Several research groups have now spent over ten years investigating novel lure concepts that can be used in dry traps. Recently, we demonstrated that dry traps baited with a three component mixture of chemicals that originate as products of food normally eaten by the flies were equally attractive as McPhail traps baited with Torula yeast, one of the most widely used protein baits. The chemicals are simple, inexpensive, and environmentally safe. In the present work we report the addition of a fourth environment- ally safe chemical to the mixture enhances overall attractiveness by 50%. This fourth chemical is not stable, however, and more research is needed to find a way to increase the durability of lures incorporating it. If this problem can be overcome, it should be possible to make a more powerful and longer-lasting lure than the protein baits currently available. With such a tool, Mexican fruit fly infestations will be found sooner following initial introductions, and assessment of populations will be more accurate, leading to faster and cheaper suppression or eradication programs.
Technical Abstract: Several amines were tested alone and in combination with AMPu, an attractant mixture containing ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium carbonate, methylamine hydrochloride and putrescine, for attrac- tiveness to Mexican fruit flies (Anastrepha ludens Loew). In laboratory bioassays, 1-pyrroline, 3-pyrroline, 2-(methylamino) ethanol, spermidine, spermine and indole-3-acetic acid were significantly more attractive than solvent controls. In orchard tests, traps baited with combinations of AMPu with dimethylamine hydrochloride, ethylamine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, or pyrrolidine captured fewer flies than traps baited with AMPu alone. Traps containing AMPu plus additional ammonium bicarbonate were much less attractive than AMPu alone. Combinations of AMPu with 1- pyrroline were about 50% more attractive than AMPu alone to both males and females. Combinations of AMPu with 3-pyrroline were not significantly more attractive than AMPu alone.