|Thiry, E - UNIV OF LIEGE, BELGIUM|
|Lyaku, J - UNIV OF LIEGE, BELGIUM|
|Losson, B - UNIV OF LIEGE, BELGIUM|
Submitted to: Veterinary Vaccinology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 30, 1997
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Commercial and experimental vaccines for viral, bacterial, protozoal, and helminthological diseases of cattle can be broadly divided into those used for both beef and dairy cattle and those used in dairy cattle, namely mastitis vaccines. Both traditional and experimental vaccines are directed against several of the economically important diseases of cattle. Live attenuated and inactivated (killed) vaccines are currently available. The former often induce a more complete and long lasting immunity, while the latter are considered safer for use in pregnant or stressed cattle. Experimental vaccines are either subunit preparations that consist of small nonreplicating components of an infectious agent, or recombinant microbes that are nonpathogenic and express immune stimulating peptides from virulent organisms. Peculiarities associated with bovine vaccines are explained by the long economic lifetime of cattle and by the diverse characteristics of disease-producing agents.