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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Chemical Analysis in Classifying Ambersweet Citrus Hybrid As An Orange for Juice Processing

Authors
item Shaw, Philip
item Moshonas, Manuel
item Hearn, C - USDA RETIRED

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: February 5, 1996
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: A new orange hybrid named Ambersweet has many desirable orange characteristics and has great appeal to citrus growers, processors and the fresh fruit market. It is the first hybrid to be classified as an orange by the Florida Department of Citrus and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Thus, unlimited use of this hybrid is permitted in processed orange juice. Since it matures early in the season and has excellent juice color, it will be useful in blending with poorly-colored juice to make grade A juice products. Ambersweet orange juice and juice flavorings showed characteristic profiles of flavor and aroma components. Characteristic profiles were also obtained from similar products from parent fruit which are orange, mandarin and grapefruit. These studies showed significant similarities between Ambersweet and orange, and significant differences between Ambersweet and the other parent fruit, mandarin and grapefruit. These studies provided the basic scientific evidence used by the FDA to classify Ambersweet fruit as an orange and to make it possible for citrus processors to take full advantage of its potential to improve the quality of processed orange juice for the consumer.

Technical Abstract: Ambersweet orange is a new orange hybrid produced by backcrossing which ripens in October and has good juice color. For the citrus processing industry to take full advantage of Ambersweet, its official variety designation as an orange had to be established. Analysis of volatile flavor and aroma constituents in juice products from Ambersweet fruit were compared with those of similar products from the parent fruits, orange, mandarin and grapefruit. All twenty-one constituents identified in fresh juice from Ambersweet were identical to those in fresh orange juice with no appreciable quantitative differences. All thirty constituents identified in Ambersweet peel and essence oils important to flavor were found to be identical to those in orange peel and essence oils with no significant quantitative differences. Analogous comparisons of these Ambersweet products with those of mandarin, Orlando tangelo and grapefruit showed major qualitative and quantitative differences in all products analyzed. This study provided information essential to the decision by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to classify Ambersweet as an orange for juice processing, thus permitting its blending with orange juice in unlimited quantity.

Last Modified: 12/21/2014
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