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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTERVENTIONS TO REDUCE FOODBORNE PATHOGENS IN SWINE AND CATTLE

Location: Food and Feed Safety Research

Title: Extracts of polyphenols from Punica granatum L. and Terminalia chebula Retz are anti-inflammatory and increase the survival rate of chickens challenged with Escherichia coli

Authors
item Zhong, Xinlu -
item Shi, Yaran -
item Chen, Jiajia -
item Zhang, Yonghong -
item Xu, Jianqing -
item Li, Dongqing -
item Beier, Ross
item Wang, Lei -
item Hou, Xiaolin -
item Liu, Fengua -

Submitted to: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 3, 2014
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes the disease colibacillosis, an inflammation in the organs of chickens, and results in serious economic loss to the poultry industry. Antibiotics are recommended to treat colibacillosis. However, resistance has now become a problem with antibiotics like aminoglycosides, tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfa drugs, and resistance to the fluoroquinolones was reported shortly after this class of drugs was used in poultry. There is concern about generating antibiotic resistance and transmitting resistant elements to human pathogens. One of our mandates in Food Safety is to explore alternative bioactive components that can be used instead of antibiotics for control of bacteria. Natural polyphenolic compounds possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases. In this study, the curative effect and mechanism of action for the polyphenolic extracts from Pomegranate and the Terminalia tree were studied in chickens challenged with APEC. Pathogen-free male white Leghorn chickens were challenged with APEC and then received oral administration of extracts of Punica granatum L. and Terminalia chebula Retz. The extracts decreased the morbidity and inflammation induced by APEC. Data from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technology used to amplify pieces of DNA in molecular biology, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a test similar to a pregnancy test that uses a color change to identify a substance, show the extracts of P. granatum and T. chebula polyphenols reversed the over-expression of the genes that play a role in early innate immune response, down-regulated the activation of signal transduction pathways that regulate genes involved in inflammation and cell survival, and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the polyphenol extracts have protective effects in APEC-challenged Leghorn chickens, and the action mechanism involves anti-inflammation activity. Naturally occurring polyphenols may be a potential alternative to antibiotics for the prevention or therapy of avian colibacillosis.

Technical Abstract: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes avian colibacillosis, inflammation in multi-organs of chickens, and results in serious economic loss to the chicken industry. Polyphenolic compounds possess a wide range of physiological activities that may contribute to their beneficial effects against inflammation-related diseases. In this study, the curative effect and mechanism of action for the polyphenolic extracts from Punica granatum L. and Terminalia chebula Retz in chickens challenged with APEC were studied. The 21-day-old specific pathogen-free male white Leghorn chickens were challenged with APEC and then received oral administration of extracts of P. granatum and T. chebula. The extracts decreased the morbidity and inflammation induced by APEC. Data from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay show that the extracts of P. granatum and T. chebula polyphenols (GCP) reversed the over-expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes TLR2, 4, and 5, down-regulated the activation of NF-'B signal transduction pathways, and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, this study demonstrates that GCP has protective effects in APEC-challenged Leghorn chickens, and the action mechanism involves anti-inflammation activity. Naturally occurring GCP may be a potential alternative medicine for the prevention or therapy of avian colibacillosis.

Last Modified: 12/20/2014
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