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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: NUTRITION, OBESITY, CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH AND GENOMICS Title: Clock 3111 T/c Snp Interacts with Emotional Eating Behavior for Weight-Loss in a Mediterranean Population

Authors
item Lopez-Guimera, Gemma -
item Dashti, Hassan -
item Smith, Caren -
item Sanchez-Carracedo, David -
item Ordovas, Jose -
item Garaulet, Marta -

Submitted to: PLoS One
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 12, 2014
Publication Date: June 6, 2014
Citation: CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP interacts with emotional eating behavior for weight-loss in a Mediterranean population. PLoS One. 9(6):e99152.

Interpretive Summary: Weight-loss interventions including both cognitive behaviour and dietary components are effective for treating overweight and obese individuals in the short-term, however tend to fail in the long-term. Behavioural and psychological factors may play an important role in long-term success of weight-loss programs. These include emotional eating, previous weight-loss attempts, binge eating and others. Emotional eaters, in particular, lose less weight following a weight-loss intervention for various reasons, and possibly including reasons related to abnormalities in the circadian system, the body’s internal clock. The purpose of this study is first to analyze the role of emotional eating behavior on weight-loss during a 30-week weight-loss program in 1,272 individuals from a large Mediterranean population and then to analyze the potential role of the human CLOCK gene in influencing this role. Emotional eating behavior was assessed by the Emotional Eating Questionnaire (EEQ), a questionnaire validated for overweight and obese Spanish subjects. Weight-loss during the 30-week program differed across groups of people with different emotional eating behavior. Participants classified as ‘very emotional eaters’ experienced more irregular weight-loss, with a lower rate of weight decline in comparison with less emotional eaters. The percentage of weight-loss was also significantly higher in ‘non-emotional eaters’. Additionally, we identified that the human CLOCK gene could modify the success of weight-loss among emotional eaters. By grouping the emotional eaters based on their genetics, our results suggest that individuals with one variant of the CLOCK gene lost significantly less weight than those with the more common variant of the CLOCK. Based on these results, we conclude that emotional eating behavior associates with weight-loss pattern, progression and total weight-loss. Additionally, CLOCK affects the total weight-loss among emotional eaters. These results suggest that the assessment of emotional eating behavior and CLOCK could improve the development of effective, long-term weight-management interventions.

Technical Abstract: The goals of this research was (1) to analyze the role of emotional eating behavior on weight-loss progression during a 30-week weight-loss program in 1,272 individuals from a large Mediterranean population and (2) to test for interaction between CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP and emotional eating behavior on the effectiveness of the weight-loss program. A total of 1,272 overweight and obese participants (BMI: 31+/-5 kg/m2), aged 20 to 65 years, attending outpatient weight-loss clinics were recruited for this analysis. Emotional eating behavior was assessed by the Emotional Eating Questionnaire (EEQ), a questionnaire validated for overweight and obese Spanish subjects. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake and weight-loss progression were assessed and analyzed throughout the 30-week program. Multivariate analysis and linear regression models were performed to test for gene-environment interaction. Weight-loss progression during the 30-week program differed significantly according to the degree of emotional eating behavior. Participants classified as ‘very emotional eaters’ experienced more irregular (P = 0.007) weight-loss, with a lower rate of weight decline (-0.002 vs. -0.003, P<0.05) in comparison with less emotional eaters. The percentage of weight-loss was also significantly higher in ‘non-emotional eaters’ (P = 0.009). Additionally, we identified a significant gene- environment interaction associated with weight-loss at the CLOCK 3111 T/C locus (P=0.017). By dichotomizing the emotional eating behavior score, linear regression analysis indicated that minor C allele carriers with a high emotional score (>= 11), lost significantly less weight than those C carriers with a low emotional score (<11) (P = 0.005). Emotional eating behavior associates with weight-loss pattern, progression and total weight-loss. Additionally, CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP interacts with emotional eating behavior to modulate total weight loss. These results suggest that the assessment of this locus and emotional eating behavior could improve the development of effective, long-tern weight- management interventions.

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
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