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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: BITING ARTHROPODS: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Location: Mosquito and Fly Research Unit

Title: Studies on the effects of sida acuta and vetiveria zizanioides against the malarial vector, anopheles stephensi and malarial parasite, plasmodium berghei

Authors
item Aarthi, Narasimhan -
item Pitchai, G -
item Murugan, Kadarkarai -
item Madhiyazhagan, Pari -
item Nataraj, Thiyagarajan -
item Nareshkumar, Arjunan -
item Kalimuthu, Kandasamy -
item Hwang, Jiang-Shiou -
item Barnard, Donald
item Wei, Hui -
item Chandrasekar, R -
item Amsath, A -

Submitted to: Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 25, 2014
Publication Date: March 26, 2014
Citation: Aarthi, N., Pitchai, G.J., Murugan, K., Madhiyazhagan, P., Nataraj, T., Nareshkumar, A., Kalimuthu, K., Hwang, J., Barnard, D.R., Wei, H., Chandrasekar, R., Amsath, A. 2014. Studies on the effects of sida acuta and vetiveria zizanioides against the malarial vector, anopheles stephensi and malarial parasite, plasmodium berghei. Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology. 2(1):51-60.

Interpretive Summary: In tropical areas of the world, malaria threatens the health of more than 2 billion people. In India and other western Asian countries, the most common mosquito vector of human malaria is Anopheles stephensi. New and improved control methods are needed for An. stephensi and for the malaria parasites it transmits. This study was made by Indian and ARS scientists to determine the effects of two plant extracts for control of immature A.stephensi mosquitoes and for toxicity of the extracts to malaria parasites in mice. Against mosquito larvae, median lethal concentrations of the extracts ranged between 81 and 120 ppm. Parasitemia in mice (extract dose-dependent) was reduced by 17-69%. The results indicate these plant extracts warrant further study and development for use as anti-plasmodial agents and for malaria mosquito control.

Technical Abstract: Methanolic extracts of Sida acuta and Vetiveria zizanioides leaves and root were studied for toxicity to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and to the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in mice. The extracts reduced parasitemia levels in mice by 17-69%, depending on extract concentration. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the extracts against An. stephensi ranged between 81 and 120 ppm. Screening of extracts for potential phytochemicals revealed that the presence of insecticidal and antiplasmodial constituents, including terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids. Extracts of S. acuta and V. zizanioides are promising for mosquito control and appear to be safe for non-target organisms. Integrated use of the extracts may provide an effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides for malaria mosquito control. The extracts also have potential for interrupting the malaria parasite life cycle in vertebrate hosts.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
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