Location: Food and Feed Safety Research
Title: A comparison of the chicken and turkey proteomes and phosphoproteomes in the development of poultry-specific immuno-metabolism kinome peptide arrays Authors
Submitted to: Frontiers in Veterinary Infectious Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 12, 2014
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The level of similarity between two species is often only considered at the genome (DNA) level. However, when this DNA gets converted into protein, the differences between two given species at the protein level are greater. We compared the proteins of chicken and turkey to determine how different the two species were at this level. It was found that while the genomes are 90% similar, the protein-to-equivalent protein between the chicken and turkey are 83% similar. Some proteins undergo the addition of a phospho-group; thus, we then considered the proteins' amino acid sequences that undergo phosphorylation. Within this specific part of the protein, we found that the chicken and turkey were less than 70% similar. Using this knowledge. it was determined that in designing a species-specific peptide array to study phosphorylation, the chicken and turkey must be designed separately. Peptide arrays can be designed to study various biological functions, including immunity and metabolism. Based on our analysis of the extensive interactions between proteins involved in immunity and metabolism, we undertook to design an immuno-metabolism peptide array. This provides a valuable tool for poultry research related to nutrition, metabolism, and infectious disease. We describe the design of such a tool in this paper was well.
Technical Abstract: The use of species-specific peptide arrays for the study of animal kinomes has a proven track record of success. This technique has been used in a variety of species for the study of host-pathogen interactions and metabolism. Species-specific peptide arrays have been designed previously for use with chickens, but a turkey array has never been attempted. In addition, arrays designed around individual cellular functions have been designed and utilized, but cross-function immuno-metabolic arrays have not been considered previously. Antecedent to designing separate chicken and turkey immuno-metabolic kinome peptide arrays, we show that while the chicken and turkey genomes are quite similar, the two species are much more distinct at the proteome and phosphoproteome levels. Despite a genome identity of approximately 90%, we observe that only 83% of chicken and turkey orthologous proteins display sequence matches between the two species. Further, less than 70% of kinase recognition target sequences are exact matches between the chicken and turkey. Thus, our analysis shows that, at the proteome and kinome level, these two species must be considered separately in the design of novel peptide arrays. Our ultimate array design covers numerous immune and metabolic processes, including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammatory responses, carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and response to hormones. We have shown the proteomic and phosphoproteomic diversity of the chicken and turkey and have designed a valuable research tool for the study of immuno-metabolism within these two species.