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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon)

Title: Minor nutrients are critical for the improved growth of Corylus avellana shoot cultures

Authors
item Hand, Charles -
item Reed, Barbara

Submitted to: Plant Cell Tissue And Organ Culture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 20, 2014
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Many hazelnuts grown as tissue culltures fail to thrive on standard growth media and the reasons for poor growth are not well understood. Our initial study of five cultivars showed that changes in the mineral nutrients of the standard medium, including doubling the minor nutrients, produced improved growth and shoot quality. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the individual minor mineral nutrients and if added nickel was required for optimal growth. Boron, copper, manganese, molybednum, zinc and nickel were tested in a computer designed experiment. High concentrations of boron, molybednum and zinc increased overall shoot quality, length and multiplication. Nickel interacted with other minor nutrients and altered the requirements for the other minor nutrients, but did not necessarily improve the overall shoot response. Improved growth and shoot quality for most cultivars required increased amounts of boron, molybednum and zinc and less manganese and copper. All of the cultivars required minor nutrient formulations that differed greatly from the orignial medium or other published minor nutrient formulations.

Technical Abstract: Many hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars fail to thrive on standard growth media and the reasons for poor growth are not well understood. Our initial study of five C. avellana cultivars showed that changes in the mineral nutrients of Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut (DKW) medium, including doubling the minor nutrients, produced improved growth and shoot quality. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the individual minor mineral nutrients from DKW medium and if added nickel was required for optimal growth. Five factors were tested at 0.5× to 4.0× DKW concentrations, [H3BO3, CuSO4.5H2O, MnSO4.H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O and Zn(NO3)2.6H20], in a response surface design with 39 treatment combinations. Ni is not present in the DKW formulation so NiSO4.6H2O was varied from 0 to 6 µM. There were many significant interactions among the minor nutrients. Higher concentrations (4×) of B, Mo, and Zn increased overall shoot quality, length and multiplication. Increased Mo improved some responses for each cultivar, and it interacted significantly with Cu and Zn. The addition of Ni greatly improved the shoot quality and length of ‘Sacajawea.’ Ni interactions were significant for the other cultivars as well, and altered the requirements for the other minor nutrients, but did not necessarily improve the overall shoot response. There was genotype variation, however improved growth and shoot quality for most cultivars required increased amounts of B, Mo and Zn and less Mn and Cu. ‘Sacajawea’ required increased B, Cu, Zn, and Ni. All of the cultivars required minor nutrient formulations that differed greatly from DKW or other published minor nutrient formulations.

Last Modified: 9/22/2014
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