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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Management of Temperate-Adapted Fruit, Nut, and Specialty Crop Genetic Resources and Associated Information

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon)

Title: Improving in vitro mineral nutrition for diverse germplasm

Authors
item Reed, Barbara
item Wada, Sugae -
item Poothong, Sukalaya -
item Hand, Charles -
item Kovalchuk, Irina -
item Niedz, Randall

Submitted to: Plant Biotechnology Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: May 10, 2014
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Complex chemical interactions in growth media and plant variation make it very difficult to optimize mineral nutrition of tissue cultued plants. Germplasm collections contain diverse species and cultivars that often do not grow well on standard tissue culture media or do not grow at all. Several recent studies were designed to determine the mineral nutrient requirements for micropropagation of diverse fruit crop collections. For each plant group, five mineral nutrient factors tested (1) ammonium and (2) nitrate nitrogen sources, (3) calcium, magnesium and phosphorous (mesos), (4) minor elements and (5) iron. Each factor was varied over a range of concentrations. Selected genotypes from each crop type were grown on each treatment combination. Data taken included shoot quality, shoot number, shoot length, severity of leaf spotting/necrosis and leaf size. The factors with the largest growth responses were determined for each plant type. Mineral nutrient formulations were identified for each crop type and genotype that resulted in significantly better growth. This approach was very successful for defining improved media for growing apricot, hazelnut, pear and raspberry tissue cultures.

Technical Abstract: Complex chemical interactions in growth media and variation in genotype response make it very difficult to optimize mineral nutrition of in vitro plants. Germplasm collections contain diverse species and cultivars that often do not grow well on standard tissue culture media or do not grow at all. Several recent studies were designed to determine the mineral nutrient requirements for micropropagation of diverse fruit crop collections. For each plant group, five mineral nutrient factors were created from salt formulations of the standard basal medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962, Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut or Woody Plant Medium) including (1) ammonium and (2) nitrate nitrogen sources, (3) calcium, magnesium and phosphorous (mesos), (4) minor elements and (5) iron. Each factor was varied over a range of concentrations. Treatment combinations were designed using response surface methodology (RSM) software. Selected genotypes from each crop type were grown on each treatment combination. Data taken included shoot quality, shoot number, shoot length, severity of leaf spotting/necrosis and leaf size. Each response was analyzed by ANOVA with results modeled using RSM. Models for each genotype identified the factors with the largest growth responses. These responses varied by crop type and by genotype, but most required more of the mesos and changes in the nitrogen composition. After the main responses were identified, additional experiments determined the optimal concentrations of these factors for each genotype. Mineral nutrient formulations were identified for each crop type and genotype that resulted in significantly better growth. This approach was very successful for defining improved media for shoot proliferation of apricot, hazelnut, pear and raspberry germplasm.

Last Modified: 10/23/2014
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