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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit

Title: Wild bird surveillance for avian paramyxoviruses in the Azov-Black Sea Regions of Ukraine (2006-2011) reveals epidemiological connections with Europe and Africa

Authors
item Muzyka, Denys -
item Pantin-Jackwood, Mary
item Stegniy, Borys -
item Rula, Oleksandr -
item Bolotin, Vitaliy -
item Stegniy, Anton -
item Gerilovych, Anton -
item Shutchenko, Pavlo -
item Stegniy, Maryna -
item Koshelev, Vasyl -
item Maiorova, Klavdii -
item Tkachenko, Semen -
item Muzyka, Natalia -
item Usova, Larysa -
item Afonso, Claudio

Submitted to: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 18, 2014
Publication Date: June 27, 2014
Citation: Muzyka, D., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Stegniy, B., Rula, O., Bolotin, V., Stegniy, A., Gerilovych, A., Shutchenko, P., Stegniy, M., Koshelev, V., Maiorova, K., Tkachenko, S., Muzyka, N., Usova, L., Afonso, C.L. 2014. Wild bird surveillance for avian paramyxoviruses in the Azov-Black Sea Regions of Ukraine (2006-2011) reveals epidemiological connections with Europe and Africa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00733-14.

Interpretive Summary: Wild birds in seven regions of Ukraine were monitored for infection with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) during 2006-2011. Of 6,735 wild birds examined, representing 86 species and 8 different orders, 20 viruses were isolated and subsequently identified as APMV-1 (n= 9), APMV-4 (n=4), APMV-6 (n=3), and APMV-7 (n=3). During the autumn migration, from 1.92 to 25 % of wild waterfowl and sea birds were positive to APMV of different serotypes. The overall rate of infection dropped during winter for waterfowl, varying from 0.93 to 1.33%. Surprisingly, during the periods of spring migration, nesting and after nesting no APMV were isolated out of 1,984 samples taken. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of four APMV-1, and two APMV-4 viruses showed that one APMV-1 virus that belonged to Class 1 sub-genotype C was epidemiologically connected with viruses from China. Three APMV-1 viruses of Class II belonged to genotype 1b and were close to viruses from Nigeria and Luxembourg, and one APMV-4 virus was related to geese viruses from Egypt. In summary, the results of our study suggest that the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine is the intersection of transcontinental migration routes of wild birds of various species carrying APMV to and from diverse geographical regions.

Technical Abstract: Surveillance for infection with avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) of 6,735 wild birds representing 86 species and 8 different orders was conducted during 2006-2011 in seven regions of Ukraine through different seasons of the year. A total of 20 viruses were isolated and subsequently identified as APMV-1 (n= 9), APMV-4 (n=4), APMV-6 (n=3), and APMV-7 (n=3). During the autumn migration, from 1.92 to 25 % of wild waterfowl and sea birds were positive to APMV of different serotypes. Most positive specimens were found in wigeons( 25 %) and teals (11.10 to 14.28%), and the lowest level of infection was found in dunlins (1.92 %) and mallards (4.71 %). The overall rate of infection dropped during winter (December to March) for waterfowl, varying from 1.33% for Ruddy Shelduck and mallards, to 0.93% for White-fronted Geese. Surprisingly, during the periods of spring migration, nesting and after nesting (April to August) no APMV were isolated out of 1984 samples taken. To determine the genetic characteristics of some of the isolated viruses, we carried out sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of four APMV-1, and two APMV-4 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that one APMV-1 virus that belonged to Class 1 sub-genotype C was epidemiologically connected with viruses from China. Three APMV-1 viruses of Class II belonged to genotype 1b and were epidemiologically connected with viruses from Nigeria and Luxembourg, and one APMV-4 virus was related to geese viruses from Egypt. In summary, the results of our study suggest that the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine is the intersection of transcontinental migration routes of wild birds of various species carrying APMV to and from diverse geographical regions.

Last Modified: 11/27/2014
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