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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Enhancement of Hard Spring Wheat, Durum, and Oat Quality

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in hard red spring wheat grown in the USA

Authors
item Simsek, Senay -
item Ovando-Martinez, Maribel -
item Ozsisli, Bahri -
item Whitney, Kristin -
item Ohm, Jae-Bom

Submitted to: Toxins
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 13, 2013
Publication Date: December 18, 2013
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58250
Citation: Simsek, S., Ovando-Martinez, M., Ozsisli, B., Whitney, K., Ohm, J. 2013. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in hard red spring wheat grown in the USA. Toxins. 5:2656-2670.

Interpretive Summary: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON can also be converted to a type of "masked mycotoxin," named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) by a metabolism to remove the toxin in the plant. Both DON and D3G are known to be toxic. Due to the lack of data on D3G, it was not considered in the food safety assessment. The information on the DON and D3G content in wheat was needed to have a clear idea about the total content of DON. In this study, a gas chromatography (GC) was used to measure DON content. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was also applied to measure DON and D3G contents for hard spring wheat samples harvested during 2011 and 2012 in USA. The LC/MS method which is a newly developed method was as precise as GC method in determining DON content. Wheat samples showed significant variation in DON and D3G content among growing regions. The samples harvested in 2011showed that DON content had a positive relationship with D3G content. Overall, results indicated that wheat DON could cause to increase D3G content and kernel damage, and environmental conditions during Fusarium infection might greatly affect wheat DON and D3G content.

Technical Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON may also be converted to a type of "masked mycotoxin," named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), as a result of detoxification process of the plant. Both DON and D3G are known to be toxic. Due to the lack of data on D3G, it was not considered in the food safety assessment. Information on the DON and D3G content in wheat was needed to have a clear idea about the total DON content. In this study, DON content was measured using a gas chromatographic (GC), and DON and D3G contents were also determined by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for hard spring wheat samples harvested during 2011 and 2012 in USA. A high and positive correlation occurred between both methods (GC and LC-MS) for DON content. Analysis of variance indicated that growing region had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on variation of DON and D3G contents. Wheat DON had a significant and positive correlation with the D3G content for wheat samples harvested in 2011. Overall, results indicated that wheat DON could cause to increase D3G content and kernel damage, and environmental conditions during Fusarium infection might greatly affect wheat DON and D3G content.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014
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