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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Chemical Biology of Insect and Plant Signaling Systems

Location: Chemistry Research Unit

Title: Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of Malaria vectors

Authors
item Nyasembe, Vincent -
item Tchouassi, David -
item Kirwa, Hillary -
item Foster, Woodbridge -
item Teal, Peter
item Borgemeister, Christian -
item Torto, Baldwyn -

Submitted to: PLoS One
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 27, 2014
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: There have been considerable improvements in methods to control indoor biting mosquitoes. However, reducing the outdoor populations is a challenge because no attractant methods are efficient. Scientists at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya, the Ohio State University and the Chemistry Research Unit of the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, USDA-ARS Gainesville, FL. have been studying methods to control mosquitoes of medical importance outdoors in Africa. They developed and field tested lures composed of chemicals identified to be attractive to the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, from both plant and animal sources. results showed that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors. However, plant-based attractants trapped a significantly higher proportion of outdoor biting non-gravid and young malaria vectors, whereas the opposite was the case in the traps baited with animal-derived odors. The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide, with or without carbon dioxide, for surveillance and mass trapping of malaria vectors.

Technical Abstract: Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based synthetic odor baits in trapping outdoor populations of malaria vectors. Three plant-based lures ((E)-linalool oxide, (E)-linalooloxide and (E)-ß-ocimene, and Blend C comprising (E)-linalool oxide, (E)-ß-ocimene, hexanal, ß-pinene, limonene, and (E)-ß-farnesene) were tested alongside an animal/human-based synthetic lure in a malaria endemic zone in the western part of Kenya. Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X) and lightless Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light trap were used. In general, odor-baited traps were compared with traps baited with either solvent alone or solvent + carbon dioxide for 12days in a series of randomized incomplete- block designs of days × sites × treatments. Our results show that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors in trapping malaria vectors, relative to unbaited traps. (E)-Linalool oxide trapped twofold more An. gambiae than carbon dioxide while combination of the two had an enhanced effect. Analysis of the trap capture data showed high heterogeneity with respect to mosquito physiology and age. The plant-based attractants trapped a significantly higher proportion of outdoor biting non-gravid and young malaria vectors, whereas the opposite was the case in the traps baited with animal-derived odors. Furthermore, the MM-X traps baited with either plant-or animal-derived odors performed better in capturing malaria mosquitoes than the CDC traps baited with these lures. The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide, with or without carbon dioxide, for surveillance and mass trapping of malaria vectors.

Last Modified: 12/18/2014
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