Submitted to: Journal of Nematology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 1, 2013
Publication Date: December 1, 2013
Citation: Burelle, N.K., Butler, D.M., Rosskopf, E.N. 2013. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne. Journal of Nematology. 45(4):272-278. Interpretive Summary: Several cover crops were assessed for their susceptibility to invasion and galling by three species of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne). Crops were selected based on their potential for use as the organic amendment component in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD). Root-knot nematode juvenile numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and galling were evaluated in greenhouse trials for arugula, cowpea, jack bean, two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard, pearl millet, sorghum-sudangrass, and three cultivars of sunflower. The susceptible control for all species of root-knot nematodes tested was ‘Rutgers’ tomato. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all species of Meloidogyne associated with roots, and are good selections for use in ASD, with potential for reducing populations of root-knot nematodes. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, nematode juveniles, and nematode eggs associated with roots, which varied among the nematode species.
Technical Abstract: Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapsis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested.