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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Management of Off-flavors and Undesirable Bacteria in Aquaculture

Location: Natural Products Utilization Research

Title: Bioassay-directed isolation and evaluation of Harmine from the terrestrial plant Peganum harmala L. for antibacterial activity against Flavobacterium columnare

Authors
item Schrader, Kevin
item Cantrell, Charles
item Mamonov, Leonid -
item Kustova, Tatyana -

Submitted to: Journal of Microbiology Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 20, 2013
Publication Date: December 12, 2013
Citation: Schrader, K., Cantrell, C.L., Mamonov, L.K., Kustova, T.S. 2013. Bioassay-directed isolation and evaluation of Harmine from the terrestrial plant Peganum harmala L. for antibacterial activity against Flavobacterium columnare. Journal of Microbiology Research. 3(6):255-260.

Interpretive Summary: Common bacterial diseases of pond-raised channel catfish cause extreme economic losses to producers annually. A natural compound isolated from the extract obtained from a plant found in the Republic of Kazakhstan was found to possess significant antibacterial activities against a type of bacteria that causes disease in channel catfish.

Technical Abstract: The antibacterial activities of crude extracts obtained from the aerial portions and roots of Peganum harmala L. were evaluated against the common fish pathogenic bacteria species Edwardsiella ictaluri, Flavobacterium columnare, and Streptococcus iniae using a rapid bioassay. Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris disease in pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are caused by E. ictaluri and F. columnare, respectively, while S. iniae can cause streptococcosis in freshwater fish. The ethanol extract of the roots of P. harmala was found to be the most active against F. columnare, with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 16 mg/L and a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 10.0 mg/L. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract resulted in the isolation of harmine (7-methoxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) as the active compound, with an IC50 of 3.8 mg/L and MIC of 10.0 mg/L. Harmine appears to be promising for evaluation of toxicity towards channel catfish and for efficacy studies to determine its potential use in managing columnaris disease in pond-raised channel catfish.

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
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