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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA - DIETARY SURVEY: DATA COLLECTION, INTERPRETATION, DISSEMINATION, AND METHODOLOGY

Location: Food Surveys

Title: Food Patterns Equivalent Intakes from Food: Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010; Tables 1-4

Authors
item Bowman, Shanthy
item Clemens, John
item Thoerig, Rachel -
item Friday, James
item Moshfegh, Alanna

Submitted to: Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: August 22, 2013
Publication Date: September 3, 2013
Citation: Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Thoerig, R.C., Friday, J.E., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Food Patterns Equivalent Intakes from Food: Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010, Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23595.

Interpretive Summary: To evaluate how well Americans adhere to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations, a Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2009-10 has been developed for the foods reported in the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2009-10. The main Food Patterns (FP) components include: Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods, Added Sugars, Oils, Solid Fats, and Alcoholic Drinks. Many of the main FP components have several subcomponents resulting in a total of 37 FP components. The four table sets provide mean intakes of the 37 FP components per individual grouped by the following demographic categories: age-gender (21 groups), race-ethnicity (20 groups), annual household income as percentage of poverty (15 groups), and annual household income in dollars (15 groups). The mean intakes of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains were well below the DGA recommendations. Individuals 2 years and over consumed 1.1 cup equivalents of fruit of which one-third was consumed as fruit juice. The dark green vegetables intake was only a tenth of a cup equivalent. Potatoes were the highest consumed vegetables (0.4 cup eq.) followed by tomatoes (0.3 cup eq.). Whole grains intake was less than an ounce equivalent (0.8 oz. eq.). Mean intake of total meat, poultry, and seafood was 4.6 ounce equivalents. Hispanics consumed 1.3 cup equivalents of total fruit with 41 percent of the fruit consumed as juice. Hispanics consumed 0.2 cup equivalent of legumes whereas Non-Hispanic whites and blacks consumed 0.1 cup equivalent of legumes. All race-ethnic groups consumed less than one ounce equivalent of whole grains. This information is useful to nutritionists and policymakers to assess the diet quality of Americans from different demographic backgrounds. This information can be used to develop appropriate nutrition intervention programs for specific population segments.

Technical Abstract: The four table sets include national estimates of mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns (FP) consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 9,042 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES) 2009-10 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) 2009-10. The four table sets provide mean intakes of the 37 FP components per individual grouped by the following demographic categories: age-gender (21 groups), race-ethnicity (20 groups), annual household income as percentage of poverty (15 groups), and annual household income in dollars (15 groups). The main FP components include: Fruit, Vegetables, Grains, Dairy, Protein Foods, Added Sugars, Oils, Solid Fats, and Alcoholic Drinks. Many of the main FP components are further subdivided so as to enhance the use of FPED to facilitate in-depth analyses. The national mean total fruit intake was 1.1 cup equivalents of which one-third was consumed as fruit juice, about one-fifth as citrus, melons and berries, and one-half as other fruit. The mean total vegetables intake was 1.4 cup equivalents, about one-fourth was potatoes and one-fifth was tomatoes. Whole grains consumption was less than one ounce equivalent and far below the dietary guidelines recommendations. Total dairy intake was 1.9 cup equivalents of which 42 percent was cheese and 54 percent was fluid milk, which included dry and evaporated milk computed as fluid milk equivalents. The mean intakes of poultry, cured meat, and meat (uncured) components were 1.4, 1.0, and 1.5 ounce equivalents, respectively. The solid fats and oils intakes were 37 and 22 grams equivalents, respectively. The Hispanics consumed about one-fifth cup equivalent of legumes as vegetables. High income individuals from household with income over 185 percent of poverty consumed a higher proportion of whole fruit (0.8 cup eq.) to fruit juice (0.3 cup eq.); whereas, low income individuals from households with income below 131 percent poverty consumed a lower proportion of fruit (0.5 cup eq.) to fruit juice (0.4 cup eq.).

Last Modified: 11/28/2014