|Ronis, Martin -|
|Ward, W -|
|Weaver, C -|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 15, 2011
Publication Date: January 15, 2013
Citation: Ronis, M.J., Ward, W.E., Weaver, C.M. 2013. Skeletal effects of plant products other than soy. In: Watson, R.R., Preedy, V.R., editors. Bioactive Foods in Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for the Agiing Population. Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, U.K. p. 409-419. Technical Abstract: In addition to the extensive literature on the effects of soy feeding on skeletal parameters and bone turnover, there are a significant number of epidemiological studies suggesting a positive link between bone mineral density (BMD) and overall fruit and vegetable consumption. There is also evidence that consumption of flaxseed or one of its main bioactives – alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an n-3 fatty acid, or its mammalian lignan precursor secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG) – is associated with higher BMD. Another class of plant-derived constituents that can have benefits to bone is nondigestible fiber that can function as a prebiotic, a substrate for gut microbiota that ferment these fibers in the lower gut. This can increase mineral utilization, important to bone mineral content (BMC). The fermentation creates short-chain fatty acids, such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, that lower the pH of the lower gut and increase the solubility of minerals. The process is also associated with increased cecal content and wall weight that could enhance mineral absorption through increased absorptive surfaces or increased exposure time as a result of increased viscosity of gut contents.