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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Understanding and Mitigating the Adverse Effects of Poisonous Plants on Livestock Production Systems

Location: Poisonous Plant Research

Title: Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species

Authors
item Lee, Stephen
item Cook, Daniel
item Molyneux, Russell -
item Davis, Thomas
item Gardner, Dale

Submitted to: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 10, 2013
Publication Date: August 1, 2013
Repository URL: http://sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03051978/49
Citation: Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 49:87-93.

Interpretive Summary: A broad survey of multiple speciments reporting the quinolizidine alkaloid composition of D. arizonicum, D. gypsophilum, D. secundiflorum, S. affine, and S. japonicum. The presence of alkaloids in the Dermatophyllum genus formerly known as Sophora and Calia and the lack of alkaloids in the Styphnolobium genus further supports the placement of these genera in recent legume phlogenies. Dermatophyllum species are placed closer to legume genera known to contain the quinolizidine alkaloids which Styphnolobium species are placed at a much greater distance from legume genera containing quinolizidine alkaloids and near Legume genera not known to contain quinolizidine alkaloids. The Dermatophyllum species have a diagnostic and uniform alkaloid profile througout their distribution unlike some Lupinus species which are not uniform in their chemical composition over their distribution as has been observed in Lupinus sulphureus and L. leucophyllus. Additionally, the Dermatophyllum species contain quinolizidine alkaloids and anagyrine and are therefore potentially toxic and teratogenic to livestock.

Technical Abstract: Sophora arizonica, Sophora gypsophila, Sophora secundiflora, Sophora affinis, and Sophora japonica were recently reclassified as Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophyllum gypsophilum, respectively. Some legumes of the sub family Papilionoideae including Sophora species are reported to conain a variety of quinolizidine alkaloids. The quinolizidine alkaloid profiles of D. arizonicum, D. gypsolphilum, D. secundiflorum, S. affine, and S. japonicum were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively using field collections and herbarium specimens throughout their range of geograpical distribution for the native species. This is the first report of the alkaloid profiles of D. arizonicum and D. gypsophylum. Alkaloid profiles of the other species were compared to previous reports. The Dermato-phyllum species contain quinolizidine alkaloids, and the teratogen anagyrine (11), while the Styphnolobium species do not contain quinolizidine alkaloids. The chemotaxonomic data are consistent with the reclassification of each species.

Last Modified: 12/22/2014