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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANURE MANAGEMENT FOR REDUCTION OF GAS EMISSIONS, NUTRIENTS, AND PATHOGENS

Location: Agroecosystem Management Research

Title: Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

Authors
item Gilley, John
item Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon -
item Lamb, Seth -
item Li, Xu -
item Marx, David -
item Snow, Daniel -
item Parker, David -
item Woodbury, Bryan

Submitted to: Transactions of the ASABE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 11, 2013
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disc, or injection methods at a rate required to meet annual nitrogen requirements for corn. Three 30 minute simulated rainfall events, separated by 24 hour intervals, were applied to the experimental plots. Inflow was applied at the top of each plot in four successive increments after the third rainfall simulation run to simulate greater plot lengths. The dissolved phosphorus (DP) load obtained on the broadcast treatment was significantly greater than that measured on the disc and injected treatments. The DP runoff load measured for the sows and gilts treatment was significantly greater than that obtained for the finisher treatment. In contrast, the NH4-N load obtained on the finisher treatment was significantly greater than the load measured on the grower and sow treatments. Runoff rate was found to be an important variable significantly influencing each of the measured water quality parameters. Land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate should each be considered when estimating runoff nutrient transport.

Technical Abstract: This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disc, or injection methods at a rate required to meet annual nitrogen requirements for corn. Three 30 minute simulated rainfall events, separated by 24 hour intervals, were applied to the experimental plots at an intensity of 70 mm hr-1. Inflow was applied at the top of each plot in four successive increments after the third rainfall simulation run to simulate greater plot lengths. The dissolved phosphorus (DP) load of 0.20 kg ha-1 obtained on the broadcast treatment was significantly greater than the 0.11 and 0.08 kg ha-1 measured on the disc and injected treatments, respectively. The DP runoff load of 0.17 kg ha-1 measured for the sows and gilts treatment was significantly greater than the 0.11 kg ha-1 obtained for the finisher treatment. In contrast, the NH4-N load of 0.70 kg ha-1 obtained on the finisher treatment was significantly greater than the 0.32 kg ha-1 measured on the grower and sow treatments. As runoff rate increased from 3.2 to 21.2 L min-1, runoff loads of DP, total phosphorus, NO3-N, and total nitrogen increased from 8.4 to 40.1, 101 to 659, 420 to 2470, and 470 to 2850 g ha-1 min-1, respectively. Runoff rate was an important variable significantly influencing each of the measured water quality parameters.

Last Modified: 4/20/2014
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