Title: Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator Authors
Submitted to: Journal of Applied Aquaculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 9, 2013
Publication Date: March 25, 2014
Citation: Farmer, B.D., Mitchell, A.J., Straus, D.L., Beck, B.H., Fuller, S.A. 2014. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. 26:71–83. Interpretive Summary: Infections of both bacteria and parasites are commonly encountered in wild fish and in aquaculture. Juvenile fish are often plagued by such infections, which can reduce productivity and profit margins. Copper sulfate and potassium permanganate are both commonly recommended treatments to reduce the number of parasites in fish and have been suggested for external bacterial infections as well. However, there are no recommendations that suggest a "catchall" treatment for both bacteria and parasites, nor substantial research efforts that have address such situations. Copper sulfate and potassium permanganate were tested on channel catfish infected with two common pathogens (Columnaris and Ichthyobodo). Infected fish were treated with either copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, or no-treatment. The treatments were applied daily on three consecutive days. The treatment effectiveness was measured by survival and by counting the number of parasites and bacteria in a sample area. Both chemicals increased survival and reduced the number of parasites and bacteria on the fish. However, fish treated with copper sulfate had higher survival than fish treated with potassium permanganate. These results should guide fish farmers in chemical selection, dose and duration to use when encountering similar situations in the field. Effective low cost treatment of fish diseases should lead to more efficient production and healthier fish.
Technical Abstract: An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their ability to reduce the bacterial load, parasite load and. Treatment rates of CuSO4 or KMnO4 were 2.1 mg/L and 3.0 mg/L respectively, and were applied once daily on three consecutive days (24 h interval) and compared to a no treatment control. Samples were taken on day 4 (24 h after the last treatment) and day 10 (one week after the last treatment) for quantification of the parasite and bacterial load. The survival rate of CuSO4 treated fish (73.0 %) was significantly different from the control (41.5%), but KMnO4 treated fish (53.6%) were not different from the control nor CuSO4 treated fish. I. necator loads were significantly reduced by both CuSO4 and KMnO4, but only CuSO4 significantly reduced the F. columnare load.