|Ramey, Andrew -|
|Reeves, Andrew -|
|Ogawa, Haruko -|
|Ip, Hon -|
|Imai, Kunitoshi -|
|Bui, Vuong Nghia -|
|Yamaguchi, Emi -|
|Silko, Nikita -|
Submitted to: Archives of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 5, 2013
Publication Date: June 27, 2013
Citation: Ramey, A.M., Reeves, A.B., Ogawa, H., Ip, H.S., Imai, K., Bui, V., Yamaguchi, E., Silko, N.Y., Afonso, C.L. 2013. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease 2 virus) in migratory birds and evidence for intercontinental spread. Archives of Virology. 158(12):2495-2503. DOI: 10.1007/s00705-013-1761-0. 2013 CDROM. Interpretive Summary: Newcastle disease viruses circulate worldwide in chickens and wild birds some circulating forms of the viruses cause Newcastle Disease in poultry species. There are virulent and non-virulent forms of Newcastle disease viruses. Since both virulent and non-virulent forms have been shown to circulate in wild birds it is important to understand what is the role of wild birds in transmission and in transport of the virus across large distances. The introduction of virulent viruses into U.S. poultry could have serious impacts on the production and in the trade of poultry and poultry products. Here we have characterized the type of Newcastle disease viruses present in migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia, assessed the relationship with other viruses circulating in the U.S., and evaluated evidence for intercontinental virus spread. Additionally, we predicted the potential of those viruses to cause disease in poultry.
Technical Abstract: Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epornitics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread. Additionally, we predicted virus pathotype using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analyses of wild bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the dissemination of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with previously identified virulent viruses providing lack of support for these strains as contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild bird isolates were faster than previous reports for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.