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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ECOLOGY, GENOMICS, AND MANAGEMENT OF STORED PRODUCT INSECTS

Location: Stored Product Insect Research Unit

Title: Rationale for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 70 Gy for the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Author
item Hallman, Guy

Submitted to: Florida Entomologist
Publication Type: Literature Review
Publication Acceptance Date: May 24, 2013
Publication Date: July 1, 2013
Citation: Hallman, G.J. 2013. Rationale for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 70 Gy for the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Florida Entomologist. 96(3): 983-990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1653/024.096.0336.

Interpretive Summary: The irradiation literature of the tephritid fruit fly genus Anastrepha was studied to determine if a generic dose less than 150 Gy (the current generic dose for all of Tephritidae) that could be used on fruit in areas of the tropical and subtropical Americas where only species of Anastrepha are quarantine pests could be supported. Although Anastrepha contains more than 230 species only seven are consistently quarantine pests, and relevant research has been done on all but one of those seven. The measure of efficacy for phytosanitary irradiation of Tephritidae is prevention of adult emergence when eggs or larvae are irradiated in fruit. The last larval stage is the most tolerant to radiation. An argument for a generic dose of 70 Gy is based on homogeneity in response to radiation within Anastrepha and the fact that the International Plant Protection Convention has approved does of 70 Gy.

Technical Abstract: The phytosanitary irradiation (PI) literature of the genus Anastrepha was analyzed to determine if it was sufficient to support a generic dose <150 Gy (the accepted generic dose for all of Tephritidae) that could be used on fruit in areas of the tropical and subtropical Americas where only species of the genus are quarantine pests. Although Anastrepha contains >230 species only seven are consistently of quarantine significance, and PI research has been done on all but one of those. The measure of efficacy for PI of Tephritidae is prevention of adult emergence when eggs or larvae are irradiated in fruit; the 3rd instar is the most radiotolerant stage. Large-scale testing where about 100,000 insects have been treated at one dose with no adults emerging has been successfully conducted at up to 100 Gy with four species. However, an argument for a generic dose of 70 Gy is based on the apparent homogeneity in response to radiation within the genus and the fact that the International Plant Protection Convention has approved doses of 70 Gy for two key species.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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