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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS THAT DETERMINE CROP RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION, DISEASE AND PRODUCTION PRACTICES Title: Registration of Purified Accessions for the U.S. Peanut Mini-Core Germplasm Collection

Authors
item Chen, Charles -
item Barkley, Noelle
item Wang, Ming
item Holbrook, C
item Dang, Phat

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 1, 2013
Publication Date: September 27, 2013
Repository URL: http://DOI: 10.3198/jpr2013.01.0003crg
Citation: Chen, C.Y., Barkley, N.L., Wang, M.L., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Dang, P.M. 2013. Registration of Purified Accessions for the U.S. Peanut Mini-Core Germplasm Collection. Crop Science. DOI: 10.3198/jpr2013.01.0003crg.

Interpretive Summary: Seed (germplasm) collections, with many desirable traits, provide fundamental genetic materials for crop improvement to ensure future food security. Specific or combination genetic backgrounds, along with the ability to cope with adverse environmental conditions or disease challenges, can produce progenies with higher yield. As a germplasm collection increases in size, evaluation of numerous highly similar lines not only wastes resources, but also reduces the possibility of identifying the truly unique and valuable accessions. Construction of a core germplasm collection, a small collection that represents the maximum genetic diversity with minimum repetitiveness, allows plant breeders to focus on fewer lines. Genetic purity of collection is imperative to maintain integrity of research and production of new peanut varieties with the associated quality traits. The USDA mini-core peanut collection was targeted to be purified. Twenty seeds from each 104 lines of the collection were planted at Dawson, GA in 2008 under best management conditions. The seeds from 5 uniform plants were harvested, combined, and planted in Headland, AL in 2009 to continue the purification process. In 2010, pure seeds of each accession were planted in Headland, AL to increase seed counts for chemical analysis and DNA fingerprinting. Images of pod and seed traits were deposited in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Database. The results showed that after purification, these lines not only preserved similar genetic variation in the collection, but also became more uniform compared to the originals. A small quantity of seeds from the purified lines can be obtained for research and breeding purposes through the National Plant Germplasm System.

Technical Abstract: Many accessions of the USDA peanut germplasm collection are heterogeneous. Advances in genomics technology have highlighted the need for collections of homogeneous accessions. The objectives of this research were to purify accessions of the USDA mini-core collection and to characterize this collection for morphological traits. Twenty seeds from each 104 accessions of the peanut mini-core collection were planted at Dawson, GA in 2008 under irrigated condition. The seeds from 5 uniform plants were harvested, bulked, and planted in Headland, AL in 2009 to continue the purification process. In 2010, homogenous seeds of each accession were planted in Headland, AL to increase seed counts for chemical analysis and genotyping. Besides morphological characters and seed chemical composition, the accessions were evaluated for resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spot which are two major diseases in the southeast. Morphological and chemical data, along with images of pod and seed traits, were deposited in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) Database. The results showed that after purification, these accessions not only preserved similar genetic variation in the collection, but also became more homogeneous compared to the original accessions. A small quantity of seeds from the purified accessions can be obtained for research and breeding purposes through the National Plant Germplasm System.

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
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