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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Conservation Systems Research for Improving Evnironmental Quality and Producer Profitability

Location: National Soil Dynamics Laboratory

Title: Integrated palmer amaranth management in glufosinate-resistant cotton: II. primary, secondary, and conservation tillage

Authors
item Aulakh, J -
item Price, Andrew
item Enloe, S -
item Van Santen, E -
item Wehtje, G -
item Patterson, M -

Submitted to: Agronomy
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 10, 2013
Publication Date: January 15, 2013
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/56853
Citation: Aulakh, J.S., Price, A.J., Enloe, S.F., Wehtje, G., Patterson, M. 2013. Integrated palmer amaranth management in glufosinate-resistant cotton: II. primary, secondary, and conservation tillage. Agronomy. 3:28-42.

Interpretive Summary: A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of inversion tillage, cover crops and spring tillage methods for Palmer amaranth between-row and within-row management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Main plots were two inversion tillage systems: fall inversion tillage and non-inversion tillage. Subplots were three cover treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye or none (i.e. winter fallow); and the sub subplots were four secondary spring tillage methods: disking followed by cultivator, disking followed by chisel plow, disking followed by disking and no-tillage. Averaged over years and inversion tillage systems the crimson clover produced maximum cover biomass followed by cereal and winter fallow. At two weeks after planting, both cover crops; crimson clover and cereal reduced within row and between row Palmer amaranth densities = 43 and 54%, respectively, compared to winter fallow. On average, the disking followed by chisel plow, disking followed by cultivator and double disking tillage had 30-50% lower early season Palmer amaranth densities compared to no-till.

Technical Abstract: A three-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of inversion tillage, cover crops and spring tillage methods for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR) and within-row (WR) management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Main plots were two inversion tillage systems: fall inversion tillage (IT) and non-inversion tillage (NIT). Subplots were three cover treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye or none i.e. winter fallow; and the sub subplots were four secondary spring tillage methods: disking followed by (fb) cultivator (DCU), disking fb chisel plow (DCH), disking fb disking (DD) and no-tillage (NT). Averaged over years and inversion tillage systems the crimson clover produced maximum cover biomass (4390 kg ha-1) fb cereal rye (3698 kg ha-1) and winter fallow (777 kg ha-1). AT 2 WAP, the WR and BR Palmer amaranth densities in the IT were = 2 times lower than in the NIT. Both cover crops; crimson clover and cereal reduced WR and BR Palmer amaranth densities = 43 and 54%, respectively, compared to winter fallow. On average, the DCU, DCH and DD tillage had 30-50% lower early season Palmer amaranth densities compared to the NT. However following either cereal rye or crimson clover, Palmer amaranth densities were 33- 74% lower in all other spring tillage methods compared to NT following winter fallow. A cover crop by spring tillage method interaction revealed = 95% control of Palmer amaranth in DCU and DD following crimson clover and DD following cereal rye. The DD tillage method controlled Palmer amaranth = 90% regardless of cover crop. Averaging over years, cover crops and spring tillage methods, the IT resulted in 89% control of Palmer amaranth compared to 71% in the NIT. Similarly, crimson clover and cereal rye controlled Palmer amaranth 89 and 80%, respectively compared to 72% in winter fallow. Of the spring tillage methods, Palmer amaranth was controlled 86, 83, 90 and 61% in DCH, DCU, DD and NT respectively, at 6 weeks after application (WAA). Highest cotton yield was obtained with the IT fb DD following cereal rye (2251 kg ha-1); DD following crimson clover (2213 kg ha-1), and DD following winter fallow (2153 kg ha-1). On average the IT cotton yields (2133 kg ha-1) were 21% higher than in NIT (1766 kg ha-1). Cotton following crimson clover (2073 kg ha-1) and cereal rye (2010 kg ha-1) produced =14% more cotton following winter fallow (1318 kg ha-1). The highest cotton yields were produced in DD which were 35, 12 and 11% more than NT, DCH and DCU, respectively.

Last Modified: 8/29/2014
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