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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit

Title: Vaccination of domestic ducks against H5N1 HPAI: A review

Authors
item Pantin-Jackwood, Mary
item Suarez, David

Submitted to: Virus Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 18, 2013
Publication Date: August 23, 2013
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/57887
Citation: Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Suarez, D.L. 2013. Vaccination of domestic ducks against H5N1 HPAI: A review. Virus Research. 178(1):21-34. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2013.07.012.

Interpretive Summary: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 virus infections are constantly monitored worldwide because of their devastating effects on poultry. Ducks have been implicated in the dissemination and evolution of H5N1 HPAI viruses. Domestic ducks that are in contact with wild waterfowl and poultry function as key intermediates in the transmission of avian influenza. Therefore, the successful control of H5N1 HPAI in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry. The continuing re-emergence of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Asia highlights the need for H5N1 vaccines that not only control disease in poultry but also prevent ducks from shedding virus into the environment to stop transmission. Although vaccination has proven effective in protecting ducks against disease, different species of domestic ducks appear to respond differently to vaccination, and shedding of the virus may still occur in clinically healthy vaccinated ducks. Consequently, vaccination in domestic waterfowl needs to be improved taking into account many factors including susceptibility to different circulating viruses, effect of species and physiological condition of the ducks, and husbandry practices.

Technical Abstract: Domestic ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. Consequently, the successful control of H5N1 HPAI in ducks has important implications for the eradication of the disease in poultry and its prevention in humans. The continuing re-emergence of H5N1 HPAI viruses in Asia highlights the need for H5N1 vaccines that not only control disease in poultry but also prevent viral shedding to stop transmission. H5N1 HPAI viruses are lethal to chickens; however, in domestic ducks these viruses can produce from asymptomatic infections to severe disease. Viruses shed by infected ducks, symptomatic or not, are a continuous threat to poultry and humans. Because the way domestic ducks are raised in many Asian countries, they serve as bridging species in the transmission of influenza viruses between wild waterfowl and poultry, including H5N1 HPAI viruses. Although vaccination has proven effective in protecting ducks against disease, different species of domestic ducks appear to respond differently to vaccination, and shedding of the virus may still occur in clinically healthy vaccinated populations. Therefore the need to improve vaccination in domestic waterfowl taking into account different variables including susceptibility to different circulating viruses, effect of species and physiological condition of the ducks, and husbandry practices.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014
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